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Transcript
Sunday, April 30, 2017
Electron Configuration and Notation guided notes
Why We Care
Chemical ________________________ happen because ________________________ are ________________________ or
________________________ from one atom to another.
Electron Configuration
The electron configuration of an atom shows how the electrons are distributed among the atomic ______________________ and
______________________ ______________________.
Arrangement of
Electrons
in Atoms
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
spdf Electron Notation
This format consists of a series of numbers, letters and ______________________
The result is a complete ______________________ for the element’s location on the ______________________ ________________.
Energy Levels
The large number "1" refers to the ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ "n" which stands for the
energy level. It tells us that the electrons of helium occupy the first energy level of the atom.
The principle quantum number is equal to the ______________________ on the periodic table where the element is located.
Energy level ___ is the ______________________ in energy and _______________________________ to the nucleus.
The _____________________________ the energy level, the _____________________________ it is from the nucleus.
Lower levels are filled _____________________________, before _____________________________ energy levels
Sublevels
The letter tells what ______________________ the electrons occupy.
In this case, the "s” tells us that the two electrons of the helium electron occupy an "____" or ____________________ orbital.
The four types of orbitals are indicated by the letters _____, _____, _____, or _______
An Important Note
Whether atoms interact depends almost entirely on the arrangement of their outer energy level (_________________) electrons.
Only ____ and ____ sublevel electrons are considered valence electrons.
The ____________ number of electrons, total, in the s and p sublevels is ____.
Electrons in the ____ and ____ sublevels are ____________ in the ____________________ energy level of an atom.
Orbitals
The exponent "2" refers to the total number of ______________________ in the orbital.
In this case, we know that there are two electrons in the spherical orbital at the first energy level.
Sublevels and Orbitals Chart
Orbital and Electron Capacity for the Sublevels
Maximum Number of Electrons
Total Number of Orbitals per Energy Level
To calculate the number of orbitals found in an energy level use the formula ______________________.
For example, the third energy level (n=3) contains ______________________ orbitals.
1
Number of Orbitals
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Sublevel
This makes sense because we know that the third energy level would have 3 sublevels; an ____ with one orbital, a ____ with 3 orbitals and a
____ with 5 orbitals. 1 + 3 + 5 = ____.
Total Number of Electrons per Energy Level
To calculate the total number of electrons that can be held in an energy level use the formula ________.
For example, the fourth energy level (n=4) can hold 2(4)2 = ______________________ electrons.
This makes sense because the fourth energy level would have four sublevels.
The s = 2 e-, p = 6 e-, d = 10 e- and f = 14 e-.
2 + 6 + 10 + 14 = 32
Orbitals and Electron Capacity of the First Four Principle Energy Levels
Principle
energy level (n)
Type of sublevel
Number of
orbitals per type
Number of
orbitals per level (n2)
Maximum # of
Electrons (2n2)
Guiding Principles in Electron Configuration
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
States that only ______________________ electrons with ______________________ spins can occupy the same atomic orbital
An orbital is filled when it contains ______________________ electrons. After that, you have to put the electrons in a different orbital.
The Aufbau Principle
The Aufbau (___________________ ______) Principle describes the order in which orbitals are filled:
the number of electrons in an atom is equal to the ______________________ ______________________;
each added electron will enter the orbitals with the ______________________ energy first.
Hund’s Rule
Electrons prefer to occupy an ______________________ orbital to minimize ______________________ -______________________
repulsion.
Electrons in ______________________ orbitals of the same ______________________ will all spin in the ______________________
direction, called ______________________ spins.
In other words, electrons move into each and all orbitals in the subshell before they pair up (electrons in the same orbit always have
______________________ spins).
Stability of Atoms
Certain electron ______________________ are more stable than others.
The most stable atoms have a ______________________ outer ______________________ level.
______________________ Rule - the ______________________ number of electrons in the outer energy level is 8.
Atoms with ______________________ -______________________ sublevels are ______________________ stable.
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Exception to the octet rule: ______________________ & ______________________, with only one energy level, can only hold 2 electrons.
2
Atoms will form ______________________ with other ______________________ to reach eight electrons in their outer energy level.