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U.S. History
Goal 2
Expansion & Reform
1801-1850
Goal 2 Vocabulary
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Eli Whitney
Cotton gin
Henry Clay
American System
Erie Canal
Interchangeable parts
Industrial Revolution
Nationalism
Adams-Onis Treaty
Monroe Doctrine
Missouri Compromise
Spoils system
Indian Removal Act
Trail of Tears
Temperance Movement
Seneca Falls Convention
Strike
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Tariff of Abominations
Whig Party
John C. Calhoun
Charles Grandison Finney
Second Great Awakening
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalism
Henry David Thoreau
Civil disobedience
Utopian community
Abolition
William Lloyd Garrison
Emancipation
Fredrick Douglas
Nat Turner
Antebellum
STARTER
2/8/10
Examine the map, “The Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821” on
page 223. Answer the questions below:
1.
How many free states/territories were in the Union, as of
1820?
2.
How many slave states/territories were in the Union, as
of 1820?
3.
In which two territories was slavery permitted?
4.
Why would Thomas Jefferson have feared for the Union’s
future after the passage of the Missouri Compromise?...
In other words, what possible problems can YOU foresee
in the Missouri Compromise? (Will this compromise last?
Why or why not?)
Goal 2 Preview Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What was John Q. Adam’s focus as Secretary of
State under Pres. Monroe? (220-221)
Why would settlers go west? (222)
Trace the process a territory would take to
become a state. (222)
Explain why Missouri’s request for admission
to the Union created conflict in 1819. (222)
Describe how the issue of Missouri’s statehood
was resolved. (222-23)
Goal 2 Preview Questions
6. What were the two basic attitudes toward Native
Americans since 1600? (226)
7. What was Pres. Andrew Jackson’s attitude toward
Native Americans? (226)
8. How did the Cherokee fight the Indian Removal Act?
(228)
9. What was Jackson’s reaction to Worcester v. Georgia?
(228)
10. Describe the Trail of Tears. (229)
11. Describe Americans’ feelings regarding westward
expansion during the 1840s. (280-81)
Goal 2 Preview Questions
12. Name four reasons people moved west in the
1840s. (281)
13. What were the results of the Black Hawk War?
(281)
14. What was the purpose of the Fort Laramie
Treaty? How successful or unsuccessful was it?
(282)
15. Why did Mormons move west? (284-85)
16. Why did Mexico invite U.S. settlers to live
there? (289)
17. What led to the tensions in Texas in the 1830s?
(290
Goal 2 Preview Questions
18. Identify events in the Texas Revolution that
occurred on the dates below (290-292):
Late 1833Late 1835March 1836April 1836Sept. 183618381845-
Starter 2/9/10
 Color
and label the Westward
Expansion Map.
 Use the map in your book,
pages A20-A21 for help.
 Only label the stages indicated
on your worksheet (1-9)
Goal 2 Preview Questions
continued…
19. Why was there such a delay in Houston’s
request for Texas to be annexed to the U.S. and
the state’s actual admittance to the Union? (292)
20. What were Pres. James K. Polk’s aspirations
after the Texas Revolution? (293-94)
21. What were the territorial gains for the U.S. as a
result of the War with Mexico? (297)
22. How did the California gold rush bring diversity
to the west? (299)
Why did people move and settle out west?
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Escape religious persecution (like the
Mormons)
Find new markets for commerce
Claim land for farming, ranching, and
mining
Seek new employment opportunities
Escape debt and financial problems
Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise was a line
created- new states admitted South of
the line would be slave states and new
states North of the line would be free
states
 It maintained a balance of power in
Congress between the free states and
slave states

Indian Removal & Treaties



Native Americans were removed from the
east to Indian Territory with the passage of
the Indian Removal Act of 1830
The removal of the Cherokee was known as
the Trail of Tears
Fighting between Native Americans in the
west (Central Plains) and the U.S.
government led to the Fort Laramie Treaty,
which was violated by the U.S. government
Manifest Destiny



Americans came to believe that it was
their destiny, ordained by God, to
expand its territory to the Pacific
Ocean and into Mexico
This was called “Manifest Destiny”
President James K. Polk wanted to
obtain territory in Mexico
Texas Independence
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Mexico invited American farmers to settle in its
northern territory to help its economy
Mexico and American settlers clashed over cultural
differences, especially regarding slavery
After fighting between Austin and Houston against
Santa Anna (Mexico’s dictator), Texas declared its
independence
Texas was eventually annexed to the United States,
following conflicts within Congress over its status as a
slave state
Texas annexation to the Union led to the War with
Mexico
War with Mexico
 Following
the War with Mexico,
the United States gained a great
deal of territory though the
signing of the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo
California Gold Rush
When gold was discovered in
California in 1849, thousands of
people moved west
 Gold prospectors were known as
“forty-niners”
 The population exploded and
California became culturally diverse

Classwork Assignment 2/9/10
Chapter 7 Section 1 Main Idea Questions
A-E (Red Books)
The questions are in the middle of the
book in yellow!
STARTER 2/10/10
Examine the map on page 227, entitled “Effects
of the Indian Removal Act, 1830s-1840s” and
answer these questions:
1.
Name the five major tribes removed as a
result of the Indian Removal Act.
2.
Where were most of the tribes moved?
3.
What do you think were some of the longterm effects of this removal of Native
Americans?
1. What was John Q. Adam’s focus as Secretary of State
under Pres. Monroe?

To establish a foreign
policy based on
nationalism

The Adams-Onis
Treaty was signed
gave America Florida
from Spain & the
Oregon Territory
Nationalism
A devotion to the
interests and
culture of one’s
nation
2. Why would settlers go west?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
To escape debts
To escape the law
In search of economic gain
Plenty of cheap and fertile land
Change occupations
3. Trace the process a territory would
take to become a state.
1st: Territory’s population would reach 60,000
2nd: Petition the government (Union) for
admission as a state
3rd: Draft a state constitution
4th: Elect representatives
5th: Congress approved the state to become
part of the United States
4. Explain why Missouri’s request for admission to the Union
created conflict in 1819.
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

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The number of slave states and free states
was not equal
Southerners were afraid they would have
less power in Congress
Southerners were threatened that
Northerners were trying to end slavery
Northerners thought the South was trying
to expand slavery into the new territories
5. Describe how the issue of Missouri’s
statehood was resolved



Henry Clay (“The Great Compromiser”)
came up with the Missouri Compromise
It maintained a balance between the free
states and slave states
In addition, a line was created- states
admitted South of the line would be slave
states and states North of the line would
be free states
The Missouri Compromise
6. What were the two basic attitudes
toward Native Americans since 1600?

Displace Native Americans and take
away their lands

Convert them to Christians, turn
them into farmers, and absorb them
into white culture
7. What was Pres. Andrew Jackson’s
attitude toward Native Americans?


President Jackson believed Native
Americans should be moved from
their lands to areas in the west
He had Congress approve the Indian
Removal Act of 1830 which moved
eastern tribes to Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma)
8. How did the Cherokee fight the Indian
Removal Act?
The Cherokee won recognition as a
distinct political community in the
Supreme Court case Worcester v.
Georgia
What was Jackson’s reaction to Worcester
v. Georgia?
Jackson refused to enforce the Supreme
Court’s decision
“John Marshall has made his decision,
now let him enforce it”
10. Describe the Trail of Tears.




It was an 800 mile trip
made by steamboat,
railroad, and on foot
Many people died in
the winter
The Cherokee were
stripped of their
possessions
¼ of the tribe died
Indian Removal to “Indian
Territory”
11. Describe Americans’ feelings regarding
westward expansion during the 1840s.


Americans believed that they were
destined and ordained by God to
move west
The phrase “Manifest Destiny”
expressed the belief that the United
States should expand to the Pacific
Ocean and into Mexican Territory
MANIFEST DESTINY
Starter 2/11/10


Read “Daily Life 1820-1850: Working at
Mid-Century” and examine the “Data
File” on pages 266-267.
Write a one paragraph diary entry (with at
date/year) explaining what your day was
like as either a cotton plantation slave, mill
worker, or a farmer
12. Name four reasons people moved west
in the 1840s.




Escape financial problems
Abundant land for ownership
Mining
Seeking new markets
What were the results of the Black Hawk
War?

More tribes were removed from their
lands in the east to Indian Territory
14. What was the purpose of the Fort Laramie
Treaty? How successful or unsuccessful was it?
• The Fort Laramie Treaty was established to
create peace among tribes in the west and
the U.S. government and its citizens
 The Fort Laramie Treaty was violated by the
U.S. government
 Eventually, Native Americans were put on
reservations and lost total control over
their lands
15. Why did Mormons move west?
The Mormons
moved west to
escape
religious
persecution
Why did Mexico invite U.S. settlers to live
there?
Mexico needed to improve its economy so
it offered land grants to American
farmers
What let to the tensions in Texas in the
1830s?


Cultural differences between the
Mexicans and U.S. settlers, especially
over the issue of slavery
Slavery had been abolished in Mexico is
1824
Identify events in the Texas Revolution that
occurred on the dates below
Late 1833- Austin petitions the Mexican government
for self-government in Texas
Austin is then imprisoned by Santa Anna
Late 1835- Texas attacks Mexico;
Santa Anna destroys the Alamo
March 1836- Santa Anna kills 300 Texans
at Goliad
April 1836- Sam Houston
defeats Santa Anna at
San Jacinto
Sept. 1836- Republic of Texas
established
1838- Houston invites the United
States to annex Texas
1845- Texas becomes the 28th
state
19. Why was there such a delay in Houston’s
request for Texas to be annexed to the U.S. and
the state’s actual admittance to the Union?




The delay occurred due to the debate over
slavery
Texas had slaves
The North feared the balance of power
between slave states and free states would
be unequal again
The North also feared there would be a war
with Mexico if Texas was annexed (or
added) to the United States
20. What were Pres. James K. Polk’s
aspirations after the Texas Revolution?
Polk wanted to bring
Texas, New Mexico, and
California into the Union
21. What were the territorial gains for the
U.S. as a result of the War with Mexico?


The United States paid $15 million for
California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah,
most of Arizona, parts of Colorado
and Wyoming
Then $10 million was paid for territory
south of the Gila River (Gadsden
Purchase)
22. How did the California gold rush
bring diversity to the west?


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
Chinese were the largest group to come
from overseas
Free blacks came looking for opportunities
Mexicans were the fastest-growing
population
Slaves were part of the population until
slavery was outlawed in California in 1849
Sectionalism
Placing the interests of
one’s own region ahead
of the interests of the
nation as a whole
Two Distinct Economies Develop
SECTIONALISM
NORTH
•Became industrial with
the invention of
interchangeable parts
•Small, self-sufficient
family farms
•Little to no need for
slavery
SOUTH
•Large plantations
•Cotton gin (Eli Whitney)
made slavery entrenched in
southern life
•More cotton was produced
with the invention of the
cotton gin, therefore more
slaves were needed
American System
(Henry Clay)
NATIONALISM
PURPOSE: Unite the nation economically
1. Develop transportation systems & internal improvements
(roads, canals, and railroad)

Specific examples: National Road, Erie Canal
2. Establish a protective tariff (tax on imports)

This INCREASED the cost of foreign goods- domestic
products were cheaper so more were sold

These taxes would help pay for internal improvements
3. Resurrect the national bank (Second Bank of the U.S.)

Created a national currency, making it easier for people
in different regions to do business with each other
Monroe Doctrine
NATIONALISM
 The Monroe Doctrine warned all outside powers
not to interfere with the affairs in the Western
Hemisphere; At the same time the United States
would not involve itself in European affairs
 Don’t create new colonies
 Don’t overthrow newly independent republics in
the hemisphere
Tariff of 1816-1832
SECTIONALISM
 John C. Calhoun (Jackson’s Vice President from South Carolina)
called the tariff a “Tariff of Abominations”
 According to Calhoun, the tariff forced the South to buy the
more expensive Northern manufactured goods
 He felt the North was getting rich at the expense of the South
 South Carolina tried to nullify the tariff
 Henry Clay stepped in a brokered a compromise, lowering the
tariff over a 10 year period
Jackson Challenges the Bank of the U.S.
NATIONALISM




Jackson believed that the Bank of the U.S.
benefited the rich rather than the citizen
Instead, Jackson deposited money into state
banks, rather than the Bank of the U.S. -“pet
banks”
These banks were loyal to the Democratic Party,
thus called “pet banks”
Eventually the BUS went out of business
Sectional Attitudes
about War with Mexico
SECTIONALISM
South
 Saw it as an opportunity to extend slavery and
increase Southern power in Congress
North
 Opposed the war and saw it as a plot to
expand slavery
 This would create Southern dominance
Wilmot Proviso Debate
SECTIONALISM
 The Proviso would ban slavery in all territories acquired in
the War with Mexico
 The North supported the proviso because it banned slavery
in new territories
 The North thought slavery was unfair competition to wage
earners
 The South opposed the proviso
 The proviso never passed, but caused more sectional
tension between the North and the South
Compromise of 1850
NATIONALISM
Created by Henry Clay to solve the controversy between free
states and slave states
The terms of the Compromise of 1850:
1.
North got California admitted to the Union as a free state
2.
South got a strict fugitive slave law
3.
Popular sovereignty (allowing residents of the new
territories to vote for or against slavery) would determine
the status of states in the future
Gibbons v. Ogden


Congress regulates interstate commerce
The federal government has the power
to regulate everything that crosses state
lines
Ex: steamboats, air traffic, TV & radio
waves
Reform Movements of the 1830-1850s



2.2 Describe how the growth of nationalism
and sectionalism were reflected in art,
literature, and language.
2.5 Identify the major reform movements
and evaluate their effectiveness.
2.6 Evaluate the role of religion in the
debate over slavery and other social
movements and issues.
American Cultural Pride
A
clear “American” culture was
emerging in the 1830s
 American art and literature was
developing and becoming
recognized
Hudson River School
The Hudson River School was an art
school
 The artists created paintings which
celebrated the American landscape
 The paintings revealed the truth in
human emotion

Buffalo Bull's Back Fat, head
chief, Blood Tribe
in the National Museum of
American Art, Washington D.C.
By George Catlin
Asher Durand
Kindred Spirits, 1849
The New York Public Library, New York City
A Lake in the Sierra
Nevada by Albert
Bierstadt
Frederic Church
Niagara
1857
Oil on canvas
42 1/2 x 90 1/2 in. (108 x 229.9 cm)
The Corcoran Gallery of Art,
Washington
Transcendentalism


Transcendentalism is a form of
American literature
Emphasized:
• Simple living
• Celebrating nature
• Optimism
• Freedom
• Self-reliance
Ralph Waldo Emerson


Emerson was a
transcendentalist
New England
writer
Wrote about simple
living, nature, and
personal emotion
and imagination
Henry David Thoreau


Lived in solitude at
Walden Pond in
Massachusetts, writing
the book Walden
Urged the concept of civil
disobedience, protesting
by refusing to obey the
law
(IMPORTANT: Ghandi
& Martin Luther King
adopt this view in their
protests in the 21st
century)
Ideal Communities Created


The optimism of the transcendentalist
movement led to the development of ideal
communities
Two include:
• Utopian Communities
• Shaker Communities
Utopian Communities




Groups tried to form Utopian
Communities, or perfect places to live“utopias”
They lived together with common goals
such as self-sufficiency
Best known communities included New
Harmony and Brook Farm
Most of these communities failed
Shaker Communities




Shakers were a religious community of New
England
They believed that men & women were equal, no
fighting for any reason, and they shared their
goods with each other
They are well known for the style of furniture
they created
Shakers vowed to never marry, therefore they
could not keep their community alive
Reform
To improve or change what is wrong,
corrupt, unsatisfactory
Reforming Prisons & Asylums


The movement to
reform prisons and
asylums was led by
Dorothea Dix
She helped set up
mental hospitals,
emphasizing
rehabilitation and
treatment rather than
punishment
Reforming Education


The movement to
reform education was
led by Horace Mann
He helped pass
compulsory school
laws (laws requiring
school attendance),
helped raise taxes for
schools & teacher
training programs.
Second Great Awakening





A religious movement
that swept the country
Appealed to common
people
Promoted the ideas of
individualism and
responsibility
Revivals were started
(open to blacks and
whites)
LEADER: Charles
Finney (preacher)
Religion & the Slavery Debate



African Americans interpreted Christian
messages as a promise of freedom for their
people
The Second Great Awakening brought
people of all races together to worship
together
The North voiced it’s religious opposition
to slavery, especially as it became more
industrial



Proslavery advocates used the Bible to
defend slavery (citing passages about
obedience)
The abolition movement (movement to
outlaw slavery) was fueled by religious
leaders such as Charles Finney
Nat Turner, a Virginian slave and preacher,
interpreted an eclipse as a divine sign and
lead a slave rebellion
William Lloyd Garrison

A white abolitionist
and editor of the
abolition newspaper,
The Liberator.

He called for the
immediate
emancipation of
slaves (freeing
without payment to
slaveholders)
Fredrick Douglass




Born into slavery, but
was taught by his
master’s wife to read
and write
Escaped slavery
Became a famous
abolition speaker
Started a newspaper
called The North Star
Defending Slavery


Some used the Bible to defend
slavery citing passages that
encourage servants to obey their
masters
They believed that slavery benefited
blacks by making them part of a
prosperous, Christian civilization
Women’s Rights Movement


The Women’s Rights Movement of the
1830s was led by two female
abolitions, Elizabeth Cady Stanton &
Lucretia Mott
They were inspired by the abolition
movement to make changes for
women
Lucretia Mott
Lucretia Mott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women’s Rights



Reformers wanted more educational
opportunities and healthcare
In 1848, a women’s rights convention was
held called the Seneca Falls Convention.
There, the women issued a Declaration of
Sentiments, outlining the rights that
women were entitled to.
Sojourner Truth

An abolitionist who
spoke out for
women’s rights
Temperance Movement


The temperance movement was the
movement to prohibit the drinking of
alcohol
This was a movement led mostly by
women and churches
Labor Reform


Workers began to demand higher wages &
shorter workdays
Trade unions were established, groups of
workers within the same trade that
organized strikes