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SECTION TWO: HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM I. Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries a collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over time. Unlike the other major religions Hinduism cannot be traced back to one founder with a single set of ideas. HINDUISM A. Origins and Beliefs Sometime b/w 750- 550 BC Hindu teachers tried to interpret Vedic hymns interpretations written down, called the Upanishads—written as dialogues b/w priest/pupil discussions talk about moksha— a state of perfect understanding of all things HOW DO I GET TO MOKSHA? - In order to reach moksha a person must understand relationship b/w atman & Brahman Atman— individual soul of a living being (each person’s soul) Brahman— world’s soul that contains and unites all atmans Moksha usually not achieved in one lifetime REINCARNATION process of reincarnation used until moksha is achieved Reincarnation— individual’s soul or spirit is born again and again soul’s karma (good or bad deeds) follows from one reincarnation to another Karma influences your caste system, state of health, wealth or poverty… B. Hinduism Changes and Develops Brahman seen as having personalities of three gods: 1. Brahma—the creator 2. Vishnu—the protector 3. Shiva—the destroyer C. Hinduism Today Hindus today free to worship any of the 3 gods they choose also free to pick any of 3 paths to reach moksha: 1. Path of right thinking 2. Path of right action 3. Path of religious devotion D. Hinduism and Society Hinduism strengthens the caste system born high in the system= they are being rewarded for karma in previous life. born low in the system= being punished for karma in previous life. II. NEW RELIGIONS ARISE Two other religions have formed from Hinduism: Jainism and Buddhism Jainism founded by Mahavria Belief that everything has a soul and should not be harmed. BUDDHISM A. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism born to noble family, raised in isolation - wanted to learn about the world grows up seeks enlightenment, how to escape human suffering Tries many different methods - finally reaches it through meditation After reaching enlightenment known as the Buddha “the enlightened one” THE BUDDHA B. Origins and Beliefs Buddhism based on the Four Noble Truths: 1. First Noble Truth—Life is filled w/ suffering and sorrow. 2. Second Noble Truth—cause of all suffering is ppl’s selfish desire for temporary pleasures of this world. 3. Third Noble Truth—way to end all suffering is to end all desires. 4. Fourth Noble Truth—way to overcome desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the “Middle Way” b/w desires and self-denial. WHAT IS THE “MIDDLE WAY?” an Eightfold Path—right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. By following this path anyone could reach nirvana—the Buddha’s concept of being released from selfishness and pain- a perfect state of being C. Buddhism and Society Due to Buddha’s rejection of the caste system many early followers were laborers and craftspeople. Monks and nuns vow to live a life of poverty, nonviolence, and not marry. Monks and nuns are also responsible for spreading Buddha’s teachings. Jatakas -Buddhist sacred writings. Trade also helped spread Buddhism ASSIGNMENT list the 8 “rights” from the 8-fold path. With a partner discuss what each “right” might mean to a Buddhist and then write an example of actions you might take for each right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.