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Civilization / Era:
Political Characteristics
Time Period:
1700 BC – 1100 BC
Related Key Concepts
1.2. The Neolithic Revolution and Early
Agricultural Societies
1.3. The Development and Interactions of
Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies
Most Important Thing to Remember:
Cosmopolitan Middle East
1500 BC – Mesopotamia divided :
-Babylonia in South (ruled for 250
yrs by Kassites who adopted
Babylonian language/culture) Capital
at Babylon.
Traded for resources; no conquest.
-Assyria in North – Capital at Ashur.
Aggressive & expansionist.
-Hittites in Anatolia (Turkey) –
Capital at Hattusha. Encouraged to
expand via use of iron weapons.
Originally, Mesopotamia featured
independent-minded city-states
Late Bronze Age sees large-scale
states focused on trade & military
Achievements (Cultural)
Old core Mesopotamia art &
architecture widely adopted, adapted,
or imitated across region
Religious Characteristics (Cultural)
Old core Mesopotamia beliefs &
practices widely adopted, adapted, or
imitated across region
Larger-scale states
Technological Characteristics (Cultural)
Iron weapons – 1st use credited to
Hittites, a huge advantage over bronze
(helped enable their dominance over
Anatolia & NW Mesopotamia)
Cuneiform – Old core Mesopotamia
writings widely adopted, adapted, or
imitated across region
Interaction with Environment
Economic Characteristics
Refer to MESOPOTAMIA (Ch 1 Notes)
Social Characteristics
Regional states now pursuing trade as
means to acquire raw materials, exotic
goods, and resources
Refer to MESOPOTAMIA (Ch 1 Notes)