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Everyone is gifted….but some people never open the package. What makes “a way of life” a civilization? • • • • • • • • • Several cities Central government Organized economy Writing system Specialization of jobs Social classes Legal code Religion Art and architecture • How did humans advance during the Paleolithic era? Neanderthal Man • • • • • • 250,000-30,000 years Advanced stone tools Used clothing Buried dead Lived in caves cave art CroMagnon / modern Man • 30,000- present time • Sewing needles, buttons • Snug boots; hooded parkas, pants w/ leggings • Fish hooks & harpoons • Bows and arrows • Flint tools and weapons • Lamps / animal fat • Why are the discoveries of Jarmo and Jericho a problem for historians? Mesopotamia: the rise of civilization How was Mesopotamia transformed around 3000 BC? Marshland and swamps… • How did Mesopotamia get its name Religion was the central force: • • • • • • Explained the workings of nature Eased the fear of death Justified rules and morality United people in a common view Bolstered the authority of rulers Promoted creativity in art, literature and science How did Mesopotamians define the purpose of man’s existence? • What were the functions of a temple priest? (administrator) Why did a mood of uncertainty and anxiety pervade the Mesopotamian psyche? • • • • Frequent floods and droughts Windstorms Invasions The gods were unpredictable Cuneiform • The Behistun Rock • Sir Henry Rawlinson The Standard of Ur • King Gudea of Lagash C. 2150 bc • The inscription describes a temple dedicated to the goddess Geshtinanna • How did King Sargon earn a place in our history books? Third Dynasty of Ur…Ur-Nammu, 2113-2096 BC The ancient Sumerians were very smart people: • • • • • • • • • Cuneiform Law codes Literature Schools Numbering system Kiln-dried bricks & pottery Lunar calendar Potter’s wheel The wheel • • • • • • • • • The wheelbarrow Sailboats Bronze tools and weapons The plow Frying pans Razors Cosmetic sets Shepherd’s pipes harps Why were King Hammurabi’s law codes obeyed?