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The University of Maine at Augusta
BIO 104 Introduction to Human Nutrition
Exam #2: Spring 2016
Multiple Choice, Short Answer: All multiple choice questions have one answer. Please write
your answer to each multiple choice/short answer question on the answer sheet. Each question is
worth 1 points. (46 points)
1. Current dietary guidelines recommend that _____ of daily kcalories come from
a. 0-15 %
b. 15 - 25%
c. 45 - 65%
d. 90 - 1000%
2. The majority of carbohydrates in the diet should be
a. insoluble fiber from plants
b. complex carbohydrates, half of which are whole grains
c. sugars, half of which comes from fructose
d. natural simple sugars such as those found in fruits
3. For a healthy adult, daily fiber intake
a. depends upon your intake of animal foods
b. is approximately 25 – 30 grams per day
c. is approximately 50 - 60 grams per day
d. There is no recommended level of fiber intake as it is not a nutrient.
4. Which of the following is not a simple sugar?
a. fructose
b. sucrose
c. cellulose
d. fructose
5. The sweetest monosaccharide is
a. fructose
b. starch
d. lactose
c. glucose
6. “Naturally sweetened” soft drinks contain cane sugar. Another name for cane sugar is
a. lactose
b. cellulose
c. sucrose
d. maltose
7. Plants store carbohydrate in the form of
a. sucrose
b. starch
c. glycogen
d. lactose
8. The animal storage form of carbohydrate is
a. sucrose
b. starch
c. glycogen
d. lactose
9. Glycogen is made and stored in
a. the liver and muscles
b. all cells
c. fat cells
d. plant cells
10. The human body has the enzymes needed to digest the all of the following except
a. sucrose
c. the beta bonds in cellulose
b. the alpha bonds in starch
d. maltose
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11. Which of the following foods is most likely to cause GI distress in a person who is lactose
a. yogurt
b. cheddar cheese
c. Lactaid milk
d. ice cream
12. Which of the following correctly matches a disaccharide to its constituent monosaccharides?
a. sucrose = glucose-glucose
b. maltose = glucose-fructose
c. lactose = glucose-galactose
d. galactose = lactose-fructose
13. Which of the following foods listed is not a good source of fiber?
a. oat bran
c. dried fruit
b. kidney beans
d. cranberry juice
14. Adding sources of _____________ to the diet has been found to lower cholesterol levels.
a. cellulose
c. insoluble fiber
b. soluble fiber
d. glycogen
15. Carbohydrates are digested to _____________ and absorbed into ____________ .
a. monosaccharides; capillaries
c. monosaccharides ; lacteals
b. amino acids; capillaries
d. glycerol; lacteals
16. After absorption, digested carbohydrates are taken to the ____________ where they are all
converted to ____________.
a. pancreas; sucrose
c. pancreas; glucose
b. liver; fat
d. liver; glucose
17. The brain’s preferred source of energy is
a. glucose
b. fatty acids
c. protein
d. ketones
18. When a carbohydrate rich meal is eaten the ________ releases _________ .
a. pancreas; glucagon
c. liver; bile
b. pancreas; insulin
d. small intestine; insulin
19. In response to low blood glucose levels the ________ releases _____________.
a. pancreas; glucagon
c. liver; bile
b. pancreas; insulin
d. small intestine; insulin
20. Type I diabetes is caused by
a. the body’s inability to make insulin
b. the loss of insulin receptors on cells
c. the inability to digest lactose
d. weight gain
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21. Individuals with Type II diabetes
a. are generally thin
b. do not make any insulin
c. have a reduced number of insulin receptors on their cells
d. are unable to store glucose as glycogen
22. Lipids include all of the following except
a. triglycerides
b. sterols
c. monoglycerides
d. amino acids
23. Triglycerides from animal sources are generally
a. saturated and liquids at room temperature
b. saturated and solids at room temperature
c. unsaturated and liquids at room temperature
d. unsaturated and solids at room temperature
24. Current dietary guidelines recommend that a maximum of _____ of daily kcalories come
from saturated fats.
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 30%
d. 50%
25. Health issues appear to be associated with all of the following except
a. monounsaturated fats
b. trans fatty acids
c. partially hydrogenated fats
d. saturated fats
26. Olive oil and canola oil are good sources of
a. monounsaturated fatty acids
c. saturated fatty acids
b. polyunsaturated fatty acids
d. cholesterol
27. Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction by which
a. saturated fats are made more healthy
b. unsaturated fats are made more healthy
c. unsaturated fats are saturated
d. solid fats are liquefied
28. My favorite Girl Scout cookie contains relatively large amounts of partially hydrogenated
oils. Therefore, this Girl Scout cookie is likely a source of
a. cholesterol
c. phospholipids
b. trans fatty acids
d. monounsaturated fats
29. A given triglyceride is a solid at room temperature and contains cholesterol. Therefore, this
triglyceride is
a. likely to be a monounsaturated fat
c. from a plant source
b. a hydrogenated vegetable oil
d. from an animal source
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30. Which of the following is the major function of phospholipids in the body?
a. They are a component of cell (plasma) membranes.
b. Phospholipids are needed to transport cholesterol.
c. They help lower cholesterol levels.
d. Most act as hormones.
31. In order to be transported in the blood most lipids are
a. converted into glucose
b. attached to proteins to make lipoproteins
c. carried to cells by insulin
d. converted to glycerol
32. Once absorbed into ______ triglycerides and other fats are transported to the liver by _____.
a. capillaries; VLDL
b. capillaries; micelles
c. lacteals; chylomicrons
d. lacteals; LDL
33. Which one of the following is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease?
a. a diet high in soluble fiber
b. a diet with a low intake of saturated fats and cholesterol
c. a relatively high blood LDL level
d. a relatively high blood HDL level
34. Current dietary guidelines recommend a maximum intake of _____ mg of cholesterol per
a. 0
b. 100
c. 150
d. 300
35. The function of HDL cholesterol is to
a. transport cholesterol to the cells for use
b. make athersclerotic plaques in the blood vessels
c. transport cholesterol to the liver for breakdown and excretion
d. serve as an energy source for brain cells
36. Which of the following has not been shown to lower cholesterol levels?
a. reduce intake of saturated fat and cholesterol
b. increased intake of animal sources of fat
c. increased intake of soluble fiber
d. increased activity levels
37. Having your body uses proteins as your primary source of energy is desirable.
a. True
b. False
38. There are _________ essential amino acids.
a. 0
b. 9
c. 20
d. 30
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39. Which of the following is not a source of all of the essential amino acids?
a. soy milk
c. brown rice
b. rice and red beans
d. egg white
40. One potential drawback of depending upon fish as you primary source of protein is that
a. fish is not a source of all essential amino acids
b. fish is generally high in trans fatty acids
c. some fish are high in mercury
d. the protein in fish is of poor quality
41. Children with protein energy malnutrition are more likely to suffer from infections and
illness. This is a result of their inability to make
a. collagen
b. hormones
c. hemoglobin
d. antibodies
42. Which of the following is not a correct statement?
a. When the protein level between cells rises to a higher than normal level swelling
b. Proteins are found in the fluids in cells, around cells, and in the blood.
c. The fluids with the highest protein levels are found around cells (interstitial space).
d. Proteins attract water.
43. Which of the following is the primary function of protein in the body?
a. source of energy
b. growth and tissue building
c. insulates and protects organs
d. none of the above
44. Which of the following is never a function of protein in the body?
a. source of energy
b. growth and tissue building
c. insulate and protect organs
d. maintaining acid-base balance of body fluids
45. The protein RDA for adults is ________ grams of protein per kg body weight.
a. 0.4
b. 0.8
c. 1.0
d. 2.0
46. Many cancer patients are in negative nitrogen balance. This means they are
a. building body proteins
b. healing and rebuilding body tissues
c. breaking down more protein than they are making
d. taking in too much protein
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Part II: Essay Questions, Please type the text of your answers, print and add hand drawn
diagrams if desired, and attach your final answers to these questions to the exam. (5 essay at 8
points per essay)
A. Type I and type II diabetes are both conditions related to the inability to control blood
glucose level. The biological cause of this inability differs. Describe in some detail,
why/how each of these forms of diabetes results in poor control of glucose metabolism.
B. Some of the symptoms of type I and type II diabetes are the same, while others differ.
Give three symptoms the two forms of diabetes have in common. Explain why they share
these symptoms. In addition give one symptom (note age of onset is not a symptom) for
which they differ and explain why they differ in this symptom. Detail is needed for full
C. HbA1c levels (often referred to as A1c levels) were not discussed in class. Explain the
meaning of the term HbA1c. Discuss the significance of elevated HbA1c levels. In
addition, describe the complications (consequences of) chronic elevated blood glucose
levels and how this relates to elevated HbA1c levels.
D. Research current statistics regarding the incidence of diabetes in the United States and in
Maine. (Most of the question focuses on type II diabetes.) Give the year for each statistic
and cite the source for each statistic (URL is fine). You must use more than one source to
answer this question to receive full credit. Note – you may not find 2015 data, give the
most recent you can find. Statistics required include:
o Number of people with type I and type II diabetes in the U.S.
o % of population with type II diabetes in U.S. and in Maine
o States with the highest levels of type II diabetes and the incidence of obesity in these
states. (for 3 states)
o U.S. type II diabetes statistics by race.
o U.S. type II diabetes statistics by age.
o Give mortality rates related to type II diabetes.
o Summarize trends in type II diabetes in the U.S. Support your discussion with
statistics. (written paragraph needed.)
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A. Give three (3) functions/benefits of a high fiber diet and, one potential drawback of a diet too
high in fiber. Include in your answer a description of how a certain type of fiber can
help lower cholesterol levels -- name this type of fiber and give 3 food sources of this type of
B. Describe the condition known as lactose intolerance. Include in your answer a description of
the biological cause of the condition, symptoms of lactose intolerance, and populations at high
risk. In addition, list dairy foods a lactose intolerant individual should avoid and dairy products a
lactose intolerant individual can often eat.
A. Compare the properties, chemical nature and food sources of saturated and unsaturated fats.
Describe how the hydrogenation reaction affects triglycerides -- chemically and physically.
State the classes of fats that are most associated with health issues.
B. Explain why one form of cholesterol is considered the "bad" cholesterol and the other "good"
cholesterol (be sure to give the name of each type of cholesterol). Explain why high levels of the
“bad” cholesterol in the blood increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and discuss diet and
lifestyle strategies known to help lower blood cholesterol levels
4. Imagine you have a friend who has decided to become a vegetarian (no animal products), yet
he/she has never heard the term "complementary proteins". Explain the meaning of this term and
why this is an important concept for a strict vegetarian (someone who does not eat any animal
products.) Include in your answer examples of complementary proteins and the difference
between complete and incomplete proteins.
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Diet Analysis using Food Tracker – Save this analysis as you will need it for Exam #3. (20
1. Go to Food Tracker and enter the following diet.
2 slices white bread (toasted, but this does not change how you enter the food in Food Tracker)
4 pats of butter, salted (this is 4 teaspoons of butter)
2 eggs fried with butter
2 links of Sausage, pork, brown and serve, cooked
Snickers bar
12 ounce coke
Potato chips, single serving bag
Wendy’s Cheeseburger, 1/4 lb meat, with mayonnaise, and tomato and/or catsup, on bun
Medium order French Fries, fast food
Coke, medium size, 22 ounce
3 medium chicken thighs, baked, skin eaten
2 tablespoons barbeque sauce
Baked potato, with salt, peel (skin) not eaten
1 ½ tablespoon butter, salted
2 Coke, 12 ounces
Chocolate ice cream, 2 medium scoops
Complete the following chart based on the Food Tracker analysis of this diet: (10 pts)
Protein Foods
Total Calories
Added Sugars
Saturated Fat
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3. Go to “My Reports” (at the top of the Food Tracker page).
o Select “Nutrient Report”
o Enter the date associated with the foods entered for the exam.
o Click Submit
o Complete the following chart based on the report that comes up. Export the chart as a pdf or
Word document and print it. Attach that print out to the exam. (10 points)
Protein, grams
Protein, % calories
Carbohydrate, grams
Carbohydrate, %
Dietary Fiber
Added Sugars
Total fat, grams
Saturated fat, %