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Aftermath of WWI Essential Question How did Europe change after WWI? Russian Revolution In 1917, Russia went through a revolution. A revolution is a big change of power in short amount of time. Poor people in Russia (serfs) were unsatisfied with their lives. They blamed the rich ruling class of Russia and demanded the Czar (King) step down The Czar of Russia (King) was Nicholas II Russian Revolution This took place in 1917. WWI had made the poor even poorer They took over the Russian Government and killed Nicholas II and his whole family, ending the 300 year Romanov Dynasty. Russian Revolution After the Revolution, a Communist group known as the Bolsheviks took over Communism is a system in which people cooperate to survive. The leader of the Bolsheviks was Vladimir Lenin Russian Revolution Lenin and the Bolsheviks make Russia a Communist country and change the name. Russia becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) The War Ends The Allied Powers win the war. The war leaves almost all of Europe bankrupt. They force Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The Treaty of Versailles The 1919 Versailles Treaty, which Germany was kept under blockade until she signed, ended the war. The treaty said: the war was all Germany’s fault. Germany had to pay money to the countries it attacked. Germany had to give up a bunch of its land and colonies Germany also had to disarm its military. The Treaty of Versailles caused Germany to go through a depression a time when businesses and people lost a lot of money People who could not find jobs joined the Communist and National Socialist parties. The National Socialist Party’s leader, Adolf Hitler, was gaining more and more power The Treaty of Versailles They were also mad because the treaty said that Germany alone caused WWI. Many Germans wanted revenge Nazi Party As more and more Germans became poor and angry, more and more began joining the National Socialist Party. Before long, the party is very large and it’s leader, Adolph Hitler becomes very powerful. They also change the name of the party to the Nazi Party 4 Adolf Hitler’s Rise to Power Hitler fought in the German army in World War I. Great Depression left Germany broke and its citizens poor. Within a year, he was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers, or Nazi, party. In 1923, he made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich. He was imprisoned for treason. In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It would later become the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology. Nazi membership grew to almost a million. In 1933, Hitler was made chancellor of Germany. Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He made Germany a one-party state and purged his own party. 4 The Third Reich POLITICAL POLICIES ECONOMIC POLICIES Hitler repudiated, or rejected, the hated Treaty of Versailles. Hitler launched a large public works program. Hitler organized a system of terror, repression, and totalitarian rule. Hitler began to rearm Germany, in violation of the Versailles treaty. SOCIAL POLICIES CULTURAL POLICIES The Nazis indoctrinated young people with their ideology. School courses and textbooks were written to reflect Nazi racial views. Hitler spread his message of racism. The Nazis sought to purge, or purify, German culture. The Nazis sought to limit women’s roles. Hitler sought to replace religion with his racial creed. 4 Hitler’s Campaign Against the Jews Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews. Many German Jews fled Germany and sought refuge in other countries. In 1938, Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities all over Germany in what came to be called Kristallnacht, or the “Night of Broken Glass.” Hitler sent tens of thousands of Jews to concentration camps, detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state. Hitler planned the “final solution”—the extermination of all Jews. The Great Depression 1. Unstable new democracies in Europe 2. Inflation in Germany causes the German money to lose value 3. U.S. gives Germany money to help, but the US Economy is broken 1. Wealth was not distributed evenly 2. Factories cut back production and laid off workers 3. Farmers produced more food than could be sold and could not re-pay loans from the government 4. October 29, 1929 the US Stock Market fails causing markets in other countries to fail 1. World wide trade stops. We Will See Hitler Again Totalitarian State: Government in which a one party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives. Dictator: Ruler who has complete control over a government Appeasement: Policy of giving in to an aggressor’s demands in order to keep the peace. After WWI In the two decades following World War I, a wave of economic and political crises swept the globe. While many people spent the 1920s trying to cope with the uncertainties of the postwar world, by 1929 they suddenly faced a much greater problem. That year, the stock market in the United States crashed. Because so many war-torn nations had come to depend on financial help from America, the stock market’s collapse triggered a worldwide economic depression that left millions around the globe jobless and hungry. In response to the turmoil, some nations turned to fascist dictators, who promised order and stability. Not content to merely rule a country, however, these dictators soon looked to conquer other lands. The Great Depression Worldwide Economic Depression Immediate Effects • Millions become unemployed worldwide. • Businesses go bankrupt. • Governments take emergency measures to protect economies. • Citizens lose faith in capitalism and democracy. • Nations turn toward authoritarian leaders. Long-Term Effects • Nazis take control in Germany. • Fascists come to power in other countries. • Democracies try social welfare programs. • Japan expands in East Asia. • World War II breaks out. 1 Postwar Issues Postwar Europe faced grave problems: Returning veterans needed jobs. War-ravaged lands needed to be rebuilt. Many nations owed huge debts because they had borrowed heavily to pay for the war. Economic problems fed social unrest and made radical ideas more popular. The peace settlements dissatisfied many Europeans, especially in Germany and Eastern Europe. Europe lacked strong leaders just when they were most needed. 1 The Great Depression Long-Term Causes Worldwide interrelationship of governments and economies Huge war debts American loans to Europe Widespread use of credit Overproduction of goods Industrial wages rise as farm earnings fall Immediate Effects Vast unemployment and misery Protective tariffs imposed Loss of faith in capitalism and democracy Authoritarian leaders emerge Immediate Causes New York stock market crash Farmers unable to repay loans Banks demand repayment of loans American loans to other countries dry up Without capital, businesses and factories fail Long-Term Effects Rise of fascism and Nazism Governments experiment with social programs People blame scapegoats World War II begins 1 Britain and France in the Postwar Era BRITAIN FRANCE The Great Depression intensified existing economic problems. The French economy recovered fairly quickly. Britain set up a coalition government made up of leaders from all three major parties. Many political parties competed for power and France was ruled by a series of coalition governments. The government provided some unemployment benefits. France created the Maginot Line to secure its borders against Germany. British leaders wanted to relax the Versailles treaty’s harsh treatment of Germany. The government strengthened the military and sought alliances with other countries, including the Soviet Union. 1 The United States in the Postwar Era The country emerged from World War I in excellent shape. The United States stayed out of the League of Nations. However, the nation took a leading role in international diplomacy during the 1920s. During a “Red Scare” in 1919 and 1920, police rounded up suspected foreign-born radicals and expelled a number of them from the United States. Congress passed laws limiting immigration from Europe. The 1929 stock market crash shattered American prosperity. President Franklin Roosevelt introduced the New Deal, a massive package of economic and social programs, to help combat the Great Depression. ____________is a Dictator Split class in two groups Why are you unsatisfied with me as dictator? What is your new political party’s name? Who is your leader? How will you take me out of power? What will you do when you have power? ___________is a Dictator How will you control the people of the other political party? Why are you unsatisfied with your new dictator? Who is your leader? How will you take them out of power? What will you do when you have power?