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Transcript
Aftermath of WWI
Essential Question
How did
Europe
change after
WWI?
Russian Revolution
In 1917, Russia went
through a revolution.

A revolution is a big
change of power in short
amount of time.
Poor people in Russia
(serfs) were unsatisfied
with their lives.

They blamed the rich
ruling class of Russia and
demanded the Czar (King)
step down
The Czar of Russia (King)
was Nicholas II
Russian Revolution
This took place in
1917.
WWI had made the
poor even poorer
They took over the
Russian Government
and killed Nicholas II
and his whole family,
ending the 300 year
Romanov Dynasty.
Russian Revolution
After the Revolution,
a Communist group
known as the
Bolsheviks took over


Communism is a
system in which
people cooperate to
survive.
The leader of the
Bolsheviks was
Vladimir Lenin
Russian Revolution
Lenin and the
Bolsheviks make
Russia a Communist
country and change
the name.
Russia becomes the
Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics
(USSR)
The War Ends
The Allied Powers
win the war.
The war leaves
almost all of
Europe bankrupt.
They force
Germany to sign
the Treaty of
Versailles in 1919.
The Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 Versailles Treaty, which
Germany was kept under blockade until
she signed, ended the war. The treaty
said:
 the war was all Germany’s fault.
 Germany had to pay money to the
countries it attacked.
 Germany had to give up a bunch of its
land and colonies
 Germany also had to disarm its military.
The Treaty of
Versailles caused
Germany to go
through a
depression
 a time when
businesses and
people lost a lot
of money
People who could not find jobs joined the
Communist and National Socialist parties.
 The National Socialist Party’s leader,
Adolf Hitler, was gaining more and more
power
The Treaty of Versailles
They were also
mad because the
treaty said that
Germany alone
caused WWI.
Many Germans
wanted revenge
Nazi Party
As more and more
Germans became poor
and angry, more and
more began joining the
National Socialist Party.
Before long, the party is
very large and it’s leader,
Adolph Hitler becomes
very powerful.
They also change the
name of the party to the
Nazi Party
4
Adolf Hitler’s Rise to Power
Hitler fought in the German army in World War I.
Great Depression left Germany broke and its citizens poor.
Within a year, he was the leader of the National Socialist German
Workers, or Nazi, party.
In 1923, he made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich. He
was imprisoned for treason.
In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It would later
become the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology.
Nazi membership grew to almost a million.
In 1933, Hitler was made chancellor of Germany.
Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He made Germany a
one-party state and purged his own party.
4
The Third Reich
POLITICAL POLICIES
ECONOMIC POLICIES
Hitler repudiated, or rejected, the
hated Treaty of Versailles.
Hitler launched a large public works
program.
Hitler organized a system of
terror, repression, and totalitarian
rule.
Hitler began to rearm Germany, in
violation of the Versailles treaty.
SOCIAL POLICIES
CULTURAL POLICIES
The Nazis indoctrinated young
people with their ideology.
School courses and textbooks were
written to reflect Nazi racial views.
Hitler spread his message of
racism.
The Nazis sought to purge, or purify,
German culture.
The Nazis sought to limit women’s
roles.
Hitler sought to replace religion with
his racial creed.
4
Hitler’s Campaign Against the Jews
Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany.
In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews.
Many German Jews fled Germany and sought refuge in other
countries.
In 1938, Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities all over
Germany in what came to be called Kristallnacht, or the “Night of
Broken Glass.”
Hitler sent tens of thousands of Jews to concentration camps,
detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state.
Hitler planned the “final solution”—the extermination of all Jews.
The Great Depression
1. Unstable new democracies in Europe
2. Inflation in Germany causes the German money to
lose value
3. U.S. gives Germany money to help, but the US
Economy is broken
1. Wealth was not distributed evenly
2. Factories cut back production and laid off
workers
3. Farmers produced more food than could be sold
and could not re-pay loans from the government
4. October 29, 1929 the US Stock Market fails causing
markets in other countries to fail
1. World wide trade stops.
We Will See Hitler Again
Totalitarian State: Government in which
a one party dictatorship regulates every
aspect of citizens’ lives.
Dictator: Ruler who has complete control
over a government
Appeasement: Policy of giving in to an
aggressor’s demands in order to keep the
peace.
After WWI
In the two decades following World War I, a wave of economic
and political crises swept the globe. While many people spent the
1920s trying to cope with the uncertainties of the postwar world,
by 1929 they suddenly faced a much greater problem.
That year, the stock market in the United States crashed. Because
so many war-torn nations had come to depend on financial help
from America, the stock market’s collapse triggered a worldwide
economic depression that left millions around the globe jobless
and hungry. In response to the turmoil, some nations turned to
fascist dictators, who promised order and stability. Not content to
merely rule a country, however, these dictators soon looked to
conquer other lands.
The Great Depression
Worldwide
Economic
Depression
Immediate Effects
• Millions become
unemployed worldwide.
• Businesses go bankrupt.
• Governments take
emergency measures to
protect economies.
• Citizens lose faith in
capitalism and democracy.
• Nations turn toward
authoritarian leaders.
Long-Term Effects
• Nazis take control in
Germany.
• Fascists come to power
in other countries.
• Democracies try social
welfare programs.
• Japan expands in East
Asia.
• World War II breaks out.
1
Postwar Issues
Postwar Europe faced grave problems:
Returning veterans needed jobs.
War-ravaged lands needed to be rebuilt.
Many nations owed huge debts because they had borrowed
heavily to pay for the war.
Economic problems fed social unrest and made radical ideas
more popular.
The peace settlements dissatisfied many Europeans,
especially in Germany and Eastern Europe.
Europe lacked strong leaders just when they were most
needed.
1
The Great Depression
Long-Term Causes
Worldwide interrelationship of
governments and economies
Huge war debts
American loans to Europe
Widespread use of credit
Overproduction of goods
Industrial wages rise as farm earnings fall
Immediate Effects
Vast unemployment and misery
Protective tariffs imposed
Loss of faith in capitalism and democracy
Authoritarian leaders emerge
Immediate Causes
New York stock market crash
Farmers unable to repay loans
Banks demand repayment of loans
American loans to other countries dry up
Without capital, businesses and factories fail
Long-Term Effects
Rise of fascism and Nazism
Governments experiment with social programs
People blame scapegoats
World War II begins
1
Britain and France in the Postwar Era
BRITAIN
FRANCE
The Great Depression intensified
existing economic problems.
The French economy recovered
fairly quickly.
Britain set up a coalition
government made up of leaders
from all three major parties.
Many political parties competed
for power and France was ruled
by a series of coalition
governments.
The government provided some
unemployment benefits.
France created the Maginot Line
to secure its borders against
Germany.
British leaders wanted to relax the
Versailles treaty’s harsh treatment
of Germany.
The government strengthened
the military and sought alliances
with other countries, including the
Soviet Union.
1
The United States in the Postwar Era
The country emerged from World War I in excellent shape.
The United States stayed out of the League of Nations. However,
the nation took a leading role in international diplomacy during the
1920s.
During a “Red Scare” in 1919 and 1920, police rounded up
suspected foreign-born radicals and expelled a number of them
from the United States.
Congress passed laws limiting immigration from Europe.
The 1929 stock market crash shattered American prosperity.
President Franklin Roosevelt introduced the New Deal, a massive
package of economic and social programs, to help combat the
Great Depression.
____________is a Dictator
Split class in two groups
Why are you unsatisfied with me as
dictator?
What is your new political party’s name?
Who is your leader?
How will you take me out of power?
What will you do when you have power?
___________is a Dictator
How will you control the people of the
other political party?
Why are you unsatisfied with your new
dictator?
Who is your leader?
How will you take them out of power?
What will you do when you have power?