Download Chapter 5: Shaping Attitudes at Work

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Behaviour therapy wikipedia , lookup

Performance appraisal wikipedia , lookup

Work motivation wikipedia , lookup

Learning Objectives:
– Discover what are work related attitudes
– Explain the meaning of Job Satisfaction, Commitment
and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
– Discuss the influence of work related attitudes for
organisations on organisation’s priorities
– Present what measures can organisations adopt in
order to shape favorable attitudes at work
“…Reflect an individual’s persistent tendency to think, feel and behave towards an
object in a particular way involving favor or disfavor.”
Always towards
Do not change
without effort
and willingness
default response
to a given trigger
External Environment: Changing external Environment,
Managerial challenges
inter pretati on of
be havior
Inte rnal Environment: Aligning
employee behavior to what is considered
‘desirable’ as organizations act through
empl oyee attitude
to desirable
be havior
Managing Dynamics of
individual behavior:
Perception, Personality,
Motivation and Learning
The two most researched Work Attitudes
Job satisfaction is an emotional state
generated by evaluation or appraisal of one’s
job experiences
– An employee who is satisfied with his/her job is said to
derive happiness or pleasure from his/her job or
experience at the job
– It is also a psychological state represented by thoughts
and feelings as its indicators
Organisational commitment has been found to be a
more direct measure of turnover intentions than
satisfaction as it reflects the extent to which an
employee shares the organisational values and goals,
wanting to continue membership of the organisation
and willing to work hard for it
Figure: 5. 2: Attitude at work and its outcomes. Adapted from Harrison (2006)
Individual behaviour that is discretionary, not
directly or explicitly recognized by the formal
reward system, and in the aggregate
promotes the efficient and effective
functioning of the organisation
Encouraging Citizenship Behaviour
– Dimensions of OCB: Sportsmanship, Organisational
Loyalty, Individual Initiative, Civic virtue and Self
Two work attitudes relevant to India:
Karmayoga and Work Dedication
– Karmayoga means a tendency to discharge one’s duties
without lusting for the outcomes
– Work Dedication is the disposition of the employee to
voluntarily engage in affectively unpleasant, nonrewarding organisationally relevant behaviours. It is a
more relevant concept in India.
The Redesigning of Jobs
Figure 5.4.3: Components of Job Design for motivated job Performance. Based on:
Hackman and Oldham (1975)
Reinforcement: Anything that increases the
frequency or intensity of a desired behaviour
Punishment : Aimed at mainly to stop or
reduce the frequency of undesirable activities
Individual Incentive Systems
– Usually in the form of money
– They can strengthen goal commitment
Gainsharing or Group Incentive
– When incentives are spread at group level, the best
results are found when employees participate in
decisionmaking and later share group incentive
Goal Setting, Feedback and Bonus
Pay Dispersion and Equity
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOPs)
– The employee-owners are more committed to the
success of the enterprise because business success is
transferred directly into personal wealth. Incentive
Stock Options (ISOs) allow ownership of stock
contingent upon meeting specific performance criteria