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The Reformation Conflict in the Catholic Church Abuses in the church: * Worldliness of Renaissance popes * Poorly educated lower clergy - some illiterate * Lower clergy having semi-official wives * Selling of indulgences (pardons for sin) Conflict in the Catholic Church Reasons for Reform: * The printing press allows the printing of the Bible and other literature that allowed people to read and interpret for themselves. * The people began to see abuses and want higher standards for clergy. Reform is demanded. PRINTING PRESS GUTTENBERG - 1440-1450 Martin Luther • Luther is angered over the sale of indulgences. • In anger he writes the 95 Theses: * Salvation by faith alone * The Bible is the only authority for Christian life not -the church * The priesthood of all believers; meaning that all people can communicate with God as the priests do Martin Luther • Someone took Luther’s ideas and printed them with the printing press. The document was spread across Germany. • The church was not happy with Luther’s ideas and he was asked to recant his beliefs. Martin Luther • Luther refused and was excommunicated. • Charles V tried Luther at the Diet of Worms. The result was the Edict of Worms which declared him a heretic and an outlaw. • In spite of this, Luther’s ideas took hold and began to spread across Germany. John Calvin - Switzerland Beliefs: – 1. Everyone is sinful, but God can save you – 2. Predestination - God knows when you are born whether you will be saved or not: those who are saved are called “The Elect” – 3. Wanted a theocracy - government ruled by the Church – Followers are known as Calvinists John Knox - Scotland This reformer put Calvin’s ideas into practice. His followers overthrew their Catholic Queen (Mary Stuart) and set up a working theocracy. –Followers were known as Presbyterians Henry VIII - England • Henry broke from the church when the Pope refused to give him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry. • Henry created the Church of England and named himself head of the new church. Counter - Reformation • Catholics were concerned about Protestants leaving the church so they began their own reforms. These reforms are called the “counter” reforms because they come in response to the Protestants. • Pope Paul III called a meeting in Trent. • The council of Trent decided – 1. To end the sale of illegal indulgences – 2. To clarify church rules, practices, and beliefs – 3. To set up more education for priests and clergy St. Ignatious Loyola Founded the Society of Jesus. Members were known as Jesuits. The society was run like an army. Their mission was to win Protestants back to the Catholic Church.