Survey

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Survey

Document related concepts

Transcript

Name_____________ SCI404 Enriched Review Nomenclature Write the formula for the following compounds: a) Iron (II) oxide b) Calcium Iodide c) Nitrogen trioxide d) Magnesium nitrate e) Calcium carbonate Name the following compounds: a) ZnSO4 b) MgF2 c) CuCl2 d) N2F3 e) NaO Balancing Equations Practice Write the formulas for the compounds and balance the equations. 1) sulphur tetrafluoride + water sulphur dioxide + hydrogen fluoride 2) magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen gas 3) copper(II)carbonate + hydrochloric acid carbon dioxide + water + copper(II)chloride 4) copper(II)sulphate + iron copper + iron(II)sulphate 5) sodium hydroxide + sulphuric acid sodium sulphate + water 6) zinc + sulphuric acid zinc sulphate + hydrogen gas 7) Sodium chloride + silver nitrate sodium nitrate + silver chloride Name_____________ Conversion to Mol It is important to understand how to convert to mol so that you can do stoichiometry properly. First, use the periodic table to calculate the molar mass (in g/mol). Then divide the mass that you are given by the molar mass. Avogradro’s number (1 mol) = 6.02 X 1023 1) a) b) c) d) e) What is the mass of: 1 mol of sodium atoms? 10 mol of carbon atoms? 0.1 mol of silver atoms? 0.5 mol of iron atoms? 0.125 mol of magnesium atoms? 2) How many mol of atoms are there in f) 27 g of aluminum? g) 20 g of calcium? h) 4 g of potassium? i) 140 g of copper? j) 0.65 g of zinc? 3) What is the molecular mass of: k) oxygen (O2) ? l) carbon dioxide? m) hydrogen iodide? n) silicon tetrachloride? 4) o) p) q) r) What is the mass of: 1.7 mol of chlorine (Cl2) ? 0.022 mol of water? 0.5 mol of sulphur molecules (S8) ? 0.25 mol of phosphorus molecules (P4) ? 5) How many mol are there in: s) 6.4 g of sulphur dioxide? t) 56 g of carbon monoxide? 6) u) v) w) How many particles are there in: 2.5 mol of lithium atoms 42 g of calcium atoms 23 g of water Name_____________ Answers: a) 23 g b) 120 g c) 10.8 g d) 28 g e) 3.04 g f) 1 mol g) 0.5 mol h) 0.1 mol i) 2.2 mol j) 0.01 mol k) 32 g/mol l) 44 g/mol m) 128 g/mol n) 169.8 g/mol o) 120.7 g p) 0.396 g q) 128 g r) 31 g s) 0.1 mol t) 2 mol u) 1.5 x 1024 v) 6.3 x 1023 w) 7.69 X 1023 Stoichiometry Practice These problems involve three main steps: 1) Convert whatever is given to mol. 2) Use ratios from the equation to predict how many mol of the unknown are produced or needed. 3) Convert these new mol to whatever units are desired [usually mass (g)] Balance the equation, and complete the stoichiometry question. 1) If 20 grams of zinc reacts with excess hydrochloric acid, how many grams of zinc chloride are produced? (41.7g) Zn + HCl H2 + ZnCl2 2) How many grams of chlorine gas must be reacted with excess sodium iodide if 10 grams of sodium chloride are needed? (6.1 g) Cl2 + NaI NaCl + I2 3) How many grams of oxygen are produced in the decomposition of 20.4 grams of potassium chlorate? (8.0 g) KClO3 KCl + O2 4) How many grams of copper are required to replace 4 grams of silver nitrate? (0.75 g) Cu + AgNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + Ag 5) If excess ammonium sulfate reacts with 20 grams of calcium hydroxide, how many grams of ammonia are produced? (9.2 g) (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + NH3 + H2O 6) If excess sulphuric acid reacts with 30 grams of sodium chloride, how many grams of hydrogen chloride are produced? (18.7 g) H2SO4 + NaCl HCl + Na2SO4 7) How much silver phosphate is produced if 10 grams of silver acetate are reacted with excess sodium phosphate? (8.36 g) AgC2H3O2 + Na3PO4 Ag3PO4 + NaC2H3O2 8) How many grams of sodium hydroxide are needed to completely neutralize 25 grams of sulphuric acid? (20.4 g) H2SO4 + NaOH H2O + Na2SO4 9) How many grams of calcium metal will react completely with 10 grams of water to yield calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas? (11.1 g) Ca + H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2 10) Zinc chloride is produced by the reaction of HCl with zinc. If 40 grams of HCl reacts with an excess of zinc, how much zinc chloride will be produced? (74.7 g) Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2 11) How many grams of silver chloride will be produced when 85 grams of silver nitrate are reacted with sodium chloride? (71.7 g) AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3 Name_____________ 12) If 98.7 grams of KCl are produced, how many grams of chlorine are needed? (46.4 g) KBr + Cl2 KCl + Br2 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions There are two types of questions here. To find reaction energy (a), add up the energy in the bonds between the molecules in the products, then in the reactants. Subtract the total bond energy of the products from the bond energy of the reactants. If this value (the reaction energy) is negative, it is exothermic, meaning it releases energy. If the value is positive, it is endothermic, and absorbs energy. To determine the amount of energy in a particular experiment (b), you need to do a bit of stoichiometry. (a) Calculate the reaction energy for the following equations (use the bond energies table on pg. 115 in your textbook). Also state whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. 1. C2H4 + H2 → C2H6 Chemical formula Structural Formula C2H4 C2H6 H2 (-124 kJ, exothermic) 2. (-2054 kJ, exothermic) H—H Name_____________ (b) Determine the amount of energy involved in the following examples: 3. How much energy will be released when 34.0 g of H2O2 decomposes according to the following equation? (100kJ, exothermic) 2H2O2 2H2O + O2 + 200kJ 4. How much energy will be released when 5.494g of manganese reacts with hydrochloric acid? (22.1kJ, exothermic) Mn + 2HCl MnCl2 + H2 + 221kJ 5. How many kJ of energy will be needed to decompose 10.8 grams of N2O gas? (13.5kJ, endothermic) 2N2O + 110kJ 4NO2 + O2 Energy Kinetic Energy: energy of an object in motion. Ek 1 2 mv 2 Remember: mass (m) must be in kg, velocity (v) must be in m/s. (km/h 3.6) 1. Which car has a greater kinetic energy: a 900 kg car travelling at 100 km/h or a 1800 kg car travelling at 50 km/h? (the lighter car) 2. H.C. kicks a soccer ball at 15.0 m/s, giving the ball a kinetic energy of 48.4 J. What is the ball’s mass? (0.43kg) Gravitational Potential Energy: energy stored in an object raised above a surface, based on it’s reference level (usually how far above the Earth it is) E pg mgh (g=9.8N/kg) Mass (m) must be in kg, and height (h) must be in m. 1. A 2 kg coconut is about to fall off a coconut tree. It is 10 m above the ground. What is the potential energy of the coconut? (196 J) 2. A 20 gram pencil placed precariously behind a person’s ear has 0.3 J of potential energy. How high above the ground is the pencil? (1.5 m) Mechanical Energy: These problems are based upon the Law of Conservation of Energy, that the energy in a closed system remains constant. Mechanical energy is the sum of the potential energy and kinetic energy. E m E pg E k and E m1 E m 2 so.. E pg1 E k1 E pg 2 E k 2 .. for this equation, you can cancel out the mass of the object. Note: For these problems we are ignoring air resistance and friction. 1. A physics student (Kevin Gandhi) drops a 200 g snowball out the window of Mr. Wilder’s classroom, trying to test the laws of gravity and hit Jyoti as she unknowingly passes under the window. If the window is 30 m above the ground and the snowball narrowly misses, what is the speed of the snowball just before it hits the ground. (24 m/s) Name_____________ Note: If the snowball was accurately dropped, you would need to factor in Jyoti’s height. 2. A 60 kg diver dives off a diving board at a velocity of 4.00 m/s [down]. What is the magnitude of his velocity at the moment he hits the water, if the diving board is 10.0 m above the water? (10.8 m/s) 3. Craig is playing in the WHS intramural basketball final and throws up a 3-pointer at the buzzer. The ball reaches the basket, which is 3.05 m high with a velocity of 8 m/s. If the ball left Craig’s hand at a height of 2.20 m, what was it’s initial velocity? (9 m/s) Effective Force: The effective force is the component of a force that affects the motion of the object. A force applied at an angle can be broken down into it’s vertical and horizontal components.. this is done using the basic trig functions (sin, cos, tan). It helps to draw a diagram for these problems. 1. A sled is being pulled. The handle makes a 30o angle with the ground. The force applied on the handle is 50 N. Determine the vertical and horizontal components of this force. Which component of this force is effective at helping move the sled forward? (horiz [effective F] = 43.3 N, vert = 25 N) 2. A box with a mass of 5 kg is placed on ramp inclined at 30o above the ground. What is the effective force that is pulling the box down the ramp. [24.5 N] Work: W = ΔE, where W is the work, and ΔE is the difference in energy in a system Also, W = F//d, where: W is the work (in Joules) F// is the force parallel to the displacement of the object d is the distance travelled by the object (in meters) 1. A box is pulled 30 m along the ground with a force of 5 N. Calculate the amount of work done on the box. [150 J] Kirchoff’s Laws For Series Circuits: Itotal= I1 =I2 =I3.. Vtotal= V1 +V2 +V3 .. Req= R1 +R2 +R3 .. For Parallel Circuits: Itotal= I1 + I2 +I3 .. Vtotal= V1 = V2 = V3 .. Req 1. Given the following electric circuit with four voltmeters. Voltmeter V1 reads 2.0 V. Voltmeter V2 reads 4.0 V. Voltmeter V3 reads 7.0 V. 1 1 .. R1 R2 Name_____________ V1 V2 V4 V3 What is the reading on voltmeter V4? (1.0 V) 2. The following electric circuit consists of two resistors R1 and R2 and a power source. R1 R2 Using an ammeter, you measured the current intensity (I) through each resistor. Here are the results : Resistor Intensity (A) R1 0.75 R2 0.75 Given this information, what is the current intensity provided by the power source Is? (1.5 A) 3. The following electric circuit consists of a power supply and two resistors (R1 and R2). Name_____________ R1 10 Ω R2 15 Ω What is the equivalent resistance of this circuit? (6Ω) 4. The following electric circuit consists of a power supply, two resistors (R 1 and R2) and two ammeters reads 5 A. A1 and AT . Ammeter R1 A1 10 reads 2 A and ammeter AT R2 A1 I1 = 2 A AT IT = 5 A What is the equivalent resistance, Req, of this circuit? (4 Ω) Punnett Squares When asked to calculate the probabilities of offspring obtaining certain traits, we use a Punnett Square. For these questions, you need to be very familiar with the following terms: heterozygous, homozygous, pure-line, dominant, recessive. If the question does not indicate the letter for the allele, you need to choose one. 1. In rabbits, the allele for long ears (E) is dominant over the allele for short ears (e). If a short eared rabbit mates with a rabbit that is heterozygous for the ear length trait, what will be the genotype probabilities of the offspring? [50% Ee : 50% ee] 2. In bears, the allele for black fur is dominant over the allele for brown fur. A pure line individual with black fur mates with a bear that is heterozygous for the fur trait. What will be the genotype probabilities of the offspring? [50% FF : 50% Ff] 3. In pea plants, yellow seeds (Y) are dominant over green seeds (y), and round shape (R) is dominant over wrinkled shape (r). Two individuals that are heterozygous for both traits are crossbred. What are the phenotype probabilities of the offspring? [ 56% round, yellow seeds : 19% round, green seeds : 19% wrinkled, yellow seeds : 6% wrinkled, green seeds]