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Early Civilizations
Name ________________
Description of Art and
How Humans Obtained
Paleolithic Age
Painted cave walls (usually 
Neolithic Age
made pottery and carved
objects out of wood
built tombs and shelters
Hunters and gatherers
farmed in permanent
raised and herd animals
How Humans Adapted
learned to make fire
created a language
made simple tools and
Work of Men and Women
 women – gathered food
and cared for the
 men - hunted
Advances in tool making
 flint – axes and spears
 skilled tools – fishhooks
and needles
 built mud-brick houses and
places of worship
 specialized in certain jobs
 used copper/bronze to
create more useful
 women – cared for children
and performed
household tasks
 men – herded, farmed, and
protected the village
What are some results of people developing specialized skills? Improving quality,
trading, making things beautiful rather than making things useful__________
Why did people live in larger communities during the Neolithic Age than earlier times?
They started farming and could grow enough food to support more people______
Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin.
Times of extreme cold when great sheets of ice covered parts of the earth were the Ice
First civilizations arose near (in)_river valleys.
Climate – hot and dry; spring rains_______________________________________
Class system:
o Upper class – kings, priests, and government officials
o Middle class – artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers
o Lower class – enslaved people
Why did Sumerians build walls around their city-states? For protection
Cuneiform was the Sumerian writing system.
Temples called ziggurats were built to honor the chief god.
The few Sumerians who learned how to write often became scribes, holding positions in
Hammurabi wrote a legal code that covered most areas of daily life.
The First Empires
The center of the Chaldean empire was at Babylon.
A group of traveling merchants was called caravan.
Babylon under the Chaldeans
-rebuilt Babylon
-world’s largest and richest city
-Hanging Gardens
-center of science (astronomers)
Review and terms to know:
Skilled workers who made metal products, cloth, or pottery are called artisans.
List the 5 themes of geography – Location, Place, Region, Movement, and
Human/Environment Interaction__________________________________________
People who study and write about the human past are called historians.
Give examples for relative and absolute location. ______________________________
Region is a geographical area that has common features.
The relationship between people and their surroundings is Human/Environment
People in one area relating to people and their surroundings in another area is movement.