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Early Civilizations Name ________________ Description of Art and Crafts How Humans Obtained Food Paleolithic Age Painted cave walls (usually animals) Neolithic Age made pottery and carved objects out of wood built tombs and shelters Hunters and gatherers farmed in permanent villages raised and herd animals How Humans Adapted learned to make fire created a language made simple tools and shelters Work of Men and Women women – gathered food and cared for the children men - hunted Advances in tool making flint – axes and spears skilled tools – fishhooks and needles built mud-brick houses and places of worship specialized in certain jobs used copper/bronze to create more useful tools women – cared for children and performed household tasks men – herded, farmed, and protected the village sickle What are some results of people developing specialized skills? Improving quality, trading, making things beautiful rather than making things useful__________ Why did people live in larger communities during the Neolithic Age than earlier times? They started farming and could grow enough food to support more people______ Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin. Times of extreme cold when great sheets of ice covered parts of the earth were the Ice Ages. Mesopotamia First civilizations arose near (in)_river valleys. Climate – hot and dry; spring rains_______________________________________ Class system: o Upper class – kings, priests, and government officials o Middle class – artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers o Lower class – enslaved people Why did Sumerians build walls around their city-states? For protection Cuneiform was the Sumerian writing system. Temples called ziggurats were built to honor the chief god. The few Sumerians who learned how to write often became scribes, holding positions in society. Hammurabi wrote a legal code that covered most areas of daily life. The First Empires The center of the Chaldean empire was at Babylon. A group of traveling merchants was called caravan. Assyrians Chaldeans . Babylon under the Chaldeans -rebuilt Babylon -world’s largest and richest city -Hanging Gardens -center of science (astronomers) Review and terms to know: Skilled workers who made metal products, cloth, or pottery are called artisans. List the 5 themes of geography – Location, Place, Region, Movement, and Human/Environment Interaction__________________________________________ People who study and write about the human past are called historians. Give examples for relative and absolute location. ______________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Region is a geographical area that has common features. The relationship between people and their surroundings is Human/Environment Interaction. People in one area relating to people and their surroundings in another area is movement.