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Focus 1/17 After the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr became the Caliph or successor to Muhammad. Abu Bakr continued to spread the Islamic faith. Abu Bakr convinced many Muslims to perform acts of jihad (struggle in God's service). As Islam spread, more and more people converted to the new religion. Point for Discussion: Why did people convert to the new religion? Term to know: Convert Critical Lens: Islam is similar to Christianity and Judaism. ISLAM SPREADS Abu Bakr becomes first Caliph or successor to Muhammad - uses Quran and Sharia law as guides to leadership ISLAM SPREADS Abu Bakr “The people who abandon Jihad fall a victim to humility and degradation. Jihad is obligatory for the Muslims.” ISLAM SPREADS Reasons for success of Muslim Arab Army 1. United around the Islamic faith 2. Spirit of Jihad 3. Byzantine and Persian Armies were weak after battling each other and did not have the loyalty of the people 4. Many converted to Islam 5. Muslim army allowed conquered people to keep their faith in exchange for a tax 6. Islam preaches equality among all believers ISLAM SPREADS Islamic army conquers Spain and parts of Italy. ISLAM SPREADS Muslim advance into Europe was stopped at Battle of Tours in 732 AD by Frankish ruler Charles Martel. ISLAM SPREADS Territories Controlled by Islamic Empire at its height. ISLAM SPREADS Islam controlled a large area of diverse cultures and build a vast trade network. Diverse = Different Vast = Big RESULTS OF CONQUESTS Islam builds huge diverse and economically stable empire Islamic Empire preserved Greek and Roman ideas Islamic Empire sees a great deal of cultural diffusion which leads to many technological advances ISLAM SPLITS Muslims begin to argue who should be Caliph Islamic Religions splits in two major factions SUNNIS - believe Caliph should be elected by religious officials SHIITES – believe Caliph should be a direct descendent of Muhammad. (More specifically his son in law Ali) CLOSURE Identify three reasons why the Islamic Arab army was so successful. What were some results of the Islamic conquests?