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Focus 1/17

After the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr became the Caliph
or successor to Muhammad. Abu Bakr continued to spread
the Islamic faith. Abu Bakr convinced many Muslims to
perform acts of jihad (struggle in God's service). As Islam
spread, more and more people converted to the new
religion.

Point for Discussion: Why did people convert to the new
religion?

Term to know: Convert

Critical Lens: Islam is similar to Christianity and Judaism.
ISLAM SPREADS

Abu Bakr becomes first Caliph or successor to Muhammad
- uses Quran and Sharia law as guides to leadership
ISLAM SPREADS

Abu Bakr

“The people who abandon Jihad fall a victim to humility
and degradation.
Jihad is obligatory for the Muslims.”
ISLAM SPREADS

Reasons for success of Muslim Arab Army
1. United around the Islamic faith
2. Spirit of Jihad
3. Byzantine and Persian Armies were weak after battling
each other and did not have the loyalty of the people
4. Many converted to Islam
5. Muslim army allowed conquered people to keep their
faith in exchange for a tax
6. Islam preaches equality among all believers
ISLAM SPREADS

Islamic army conquers Spain and parts of Italy.
ISLAM SPREADS

Muslim advance into Europe was stopped at Battle of Tours
in 732 AD by Frankish ruler Charles Martel.
ISLAM SPREADS

Territories Controlled by Islamic Empire at its height.
ISLAM SPREADS

Islam controlled a large area of diverse cultures and build a
vast trade network.
Diverse = Different
Vast = Big
RESULTS OF CONQUESTS

Islam builds huge diverse and economically stable empire

Islamic Empire preserved Greek and Roman ideas

Islamic Empire sees a great deal of cultural diffusion which
leads to many technological advances
ISLAM SPLITS

Muslims begin to argue who should be Caliph

Islamic Religions splits in two major factions

SUNNIS - believe Caliph should be elected by religious
officials

SHIITES – believe Caliph should be a direct descendent of
Muhammad. (More specifically his son in law Ali)
CLOSURE

Identify three reasons why the Islamic Arab army was so
successful.

What were some results of the Islamic conquests?