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Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
Send all inquiries to:
GLENCOE DIVISION
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240
CHAPTER FOCUS
SECTION 1 France
SECTION 2 England
SECTION 3 The Hundred Years’ War
SECTION 4 Germany
SECTION 5 Spain
CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
3
Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section.
Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.
Overview
• Chapter 27 describes the growth of central
governments in France, Germany, and
Spain. 
– Section 1 describes the English monarchy,
the Magna Carta, and the parliament. 
– Section 2 describes the English monarchy,
the Magna Carta, and the Parliament. 
– Section 3 analyzes the Hundred Years’
War. 
– Section 4 explains the role of the Holy
Roman Empire. 
– Section 5 summarizes the unification of
Spain.
4
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the information.
Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
• describe how the Capetian kings strengthened
the French monarchy. 
• discuss limits placed on the English monarchy.

• analyze the causes and results of the Hundred
Years’ War. 
• explain how the Holy Roman Empire was
created and ruled. 
• summarize how the Catholic monarchs united
Spain.
5
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the information.
Read to Discover
• How the Capetian kings strengthened the
French monarchy 
• What changes took place in the English
monarchy during the Middle Ages 
• What the main causes and results were
of the Hundred Years’ War 
• How the Holy Roman Empire was
created and ruled 
• How the Catholic monarchs united
Spain
6
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the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 411 of your textbook.
Terms to Learn
• monarchies 
• circuit judges 
• grand jury 
• trial jury 
• dauphin 
• diet 
• corregidores 
7
People to Know
• Hugh Capet 
• William the Conqueror 
• Joan of Arc 
• Frederick II 
• Ferdinand and Isabella 
•
•
•
•
•
Places to Locate
Hastings 
Orleans 
Sicily 
Holy Roman Empire 
Granada
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the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words.
Why It’s Important
The growth of trade and towns during the
late Middle Ages led to many changes in
western Europe. Some of these changes
were political. The rise of monarchies, or
countries governed by one ruler, led to
the decline of feudalism.
8
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France
• In 987, Hugh Capet, a French noble, was
chosen as the new king of France, which
consisted of many feudal territories. 
• In 1108, Louis VI, known as “Louis the Fat,”
became king and increased the power of the
monarchy. 
• The king’s power was further increased
under Philip II, also known as Philip
Augustus, who ruled from 1179 to 1223. 
• In 1226, Philip’s grandson became King
Louis IX.
10
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the information. Section 1 begins on page 411 of your textbook.
France (cont.)
• Louis IX brought peace and unity to France,
ordered the nobles to stop feuding, and set
up a royal court to settle disputes. 
• Philip IV, Louis’s grandson, known as “Philip
the Fair,” ruled from 1285 to 1314. 
• He formed the Estates-General, an assembly
of nobles, clergy, and townspeople, to help
him run the country, marking the beginning of
a national government in France. 
• By the time Philip IV died in 1314, France
was united under one ruler.
11
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the information.
Section Assessment
How did Louis VI increase the
power of the monarchy?
He got rid of nobles who did not fulfill
their feudal duties and put loyal
persons of lower birth in their place;
stopped raids of lawless vassals; and
granted charters of freedom to many
towns.
12
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
What did Louis IX and Philip the
Fair do to help unite France?
Louis IX ordered the nobles to stop
feuding and fighting duels, required
use of royal coins, and set up a royal
court. Philip the Fair seized English
fortresses in France, went to war with
the Flemish, set up a tax system, and
formed the Estates-General.
13
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Drawing Conclusions Why do
you think Louis IX made it illegal
for nobles to coin their own
money?
He may have done this to increase
his power and promote unity.
14
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw the diagram on page 413 of your
textbook, and use it to summarize the
accomplishments of these French
kings: Hugh Capet, Louis VI, Philip II,
Louis IX, and Philip IV.
Review accomplishments summarized
in Section 1.
15
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the answer.
England
• In 1042, the witenagemot made Edward the
Confessor, an Anglo-Saxon prince, king of
England. 
• Edward spent so much time in religious
work that he failed to carry out his royal
duties. 
• As a result, the nobles increased their
hold on the country. 
• The most powerful noble was Harold
Godwinson who became king when
Edward died in 1066 without an heir.
17
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the information. Section 2 begins on page 413 of your textbook.
William the Conqueror
• William, Duke of Normandy, a cousin of
Edward the Confessor, claimed that before
Edward died, he had promised him the
English throne. 
• In 1066, William led an army of between
4,000 and 7,000 Norman knights across
the channel to England. 
• They met Harold’s army in battle near
Hastings, a town just south of London. 
• By nightfall, King Harold was dead, and
the English were defeated.
18
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the information.
William the Conqueror (cont.)
• William the Conqueror was crowned King
William I of England. 
• William introduced feudalism and seized
the lands of English nobles, divided them
among Norman nobles, and they became
his vassals. 
• He received advice from the witenagemot,
now called the Great Council, and
depended on such local officials as the
sheriff.
19
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William the Conqueror (cont.)
• In 1086, he took a census and a survey of
the land to tax the people properly. 
• William brought continental, or European
mainland, ways to England.
20
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Henry II
• After William’s death there were years of
confusion, until William’s great-grandson
became King Henry II of England, most of
Ireland, Scotland, and Wales in 1154. 
• Henry II worked to reform English courts. 
• A central royal court was set up in London
with trained lawyers as judges. 
• Circuit judges, or judges who travel
throughout the country, brought the king's
law to all parts of England.
21
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Henry II (cont.)
• Henry also set up juries to settle quarrels,
and two kinds developed. 
– One was the grand jury, or a group of people
who present to judges the names of people
suspected of crimes. 
– The other was the trial jury, or a group of people
who decide whether a person accused of a crime
is innocent or guilty. 
• Henry II believed that everyone, even
church officials, should be tried in the
king's courts.
22
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the information.
Magna Carta and Parliament
• When Henry II died in 1189, his oldest son
Richard, who was more interested in his
French lands and fighting in the Crusades,
became king. 
• When Richard died in 1199, his brother John
became king of England. 
• John angered the nobles by increasing
England’s taxes and ignoring the law. 
• In 1215, the nobles forced John to sign the
Magna Carta, or Great Charter.
23
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the information.
Magna Carta and Parliament (cont.)
• The Magna Carta took away some of the
king’s power. 
• The Magna Carta enforced the new idea
that even a king is not above the law. 
• John died in 1216, and his son became
King Henry III. 
• Henry was weak and allowed the feudal
lords in the Great Council to rule England. 
• In 1264, Simon de Montfort, Henry's
brother-in-law, came to power.
24
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the information.
Magna Carta and Parliament (cont.)
• Eight years later, the new king, Edward I,
called for a meeting of representatives to
advise and to help make laws. 
• This gathering, known as Parliament,
gave the people a greater share in the
ruling of England. 
• Parliament later broke into two separate
groups: nobles and clergy met as the
House of Lords, while knights and
townspeople met as the House of
Commons.
25
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the information.
Section Assessment
How did the Normans win the
Battle of Hastings?
William’s soldiers pretended to
retreat and attacked when the
English broke formation to follow
after them.
26
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Why was King John forced to sign
the Magna Carta?
King John had increased taxes and
had begun to ignore the law.
27
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Predicting Consequences How might
the history of the English government
have been different if nobles had not
forced King John to sign the Magna
Carta?
Answers will vary. England might not
have developed a system of
government in which the people have
a share in ruling.
28
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw a diagram like the one on
page 416 of your textbook, and use
it to show some of the milestones
in democracy that took place in
medieval England.
Milestones include: invasion of William the
Conqueror and his efforts to end feudalism;
William’s use of the Great Council; 1086
census to determine fair taxation; use of
circuit judges, grand jury, and trial by jury
under Henry II, signing of Magna Carta,
creation of Parliament
29
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the answer.
The Hundred Years’ War
• In the early 1300s, the French kings wanted
to rid France of the English who held a
small part of southwest France. 
• In 1337, England and France fought the first
in a long series of battles known as the
Hundred Years’ War. 
• The English defeated the French at the
Battle of Crécy in 1346 and again at the
Battle of Agincourt in 1415. 
• The English owed their land success to a
new weapon, the longbow.
31
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the information. Section 3 begins on page 417 of your textbook.
Joan of Arc
• By 1429, much of France was in English
hands and Charles, the French dauphin, or
eldest son of the king, was fighting the
English for the French throne. 
• A 17-year-old French peasant named
Jeanne d’Arc, or Joan of Arc, told Charles
that God had sent her and that if she had
an army she would free Orleans. 
• Charles consented and within ten days, the
city was free, and Joan became known as
the “Maid of Orleans.”
32
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the information.
Joan of Arc (cont.)
• Shortly after, with Joan at his side, the
dauphin was crowned King Charles VII of
France. 
• By 1453, the French had driven the English
from all of France except the seaport of
Calais, and the war came to an end.
33
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the information.
Results of the War
• Both France and England were changed by
the Hundred Years’ War. 
• By 1500, French feudal territories were
unified under the king's rule. 
• England, too, was unified by the war, but
its monarchy was weakened. 
• The common people in both England and
France became more important.
34
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the information.
Section Assessment
Why did France and England go
to war?
The kings of France wanted to drive
the English out, and Edward III of
England declared himself king of
France.
35
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
How did the Hundred Years’ War
affect French and English
peasants?
They became more important.
36
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Understanding Cause and Effect
What was the connection
between the Hundred Years’ War
and the end of feudalism?
Kings took control of feudal territories,
England and France were unified, and
peasants became more important.
37
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw the diagram on page 419
of your textbook , and use it to
show facts about Joan of Arc’s
life.
Use the People in History feature to
answer this question.
38
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the answer.
Germany
• During the 900s, Germany was the most
important country in western Europe.
40
Section 4 begins on page 419 of your textbook.
Otto I
• In 936, Otto I became king of Germany. 
• He turned to the Roman Catholic Church
for help, which desired to set up a
Christian Roman Empire in western
Europe. 
• In 951, he marched into Italy, and in 962,
he led an army to Rome to free the Pope
from the control of Roman nobles. 
• In return, the Pope crowned Otto I
emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, a
large new state made up of Germany and
northern Italy.
41
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the information.
Frederick I
• In 1152, Frederick I, called Barbarossa, or
“red beard,” became emperor. 
• Frederick’s attempts to control the nobles
and unify the empire worked against him. 
• While leading the Third Crusade in 1190,
Frederick drowned in a river in Asia Minor.
42
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the information.
Frederick II
• In 1220, Frederick II, Frederick I’s grandson,
became emperor. 
• Since Frederick II was raised in Palermo,
Sicily, he concentrated on ruling Sicily. 
• Frederick was excommunicated from the
church when he began taking over church
land in Italy. 
• The German princes broke away from
Frederick’s rule and made Germany a
loose grouping of states under their
control.
43
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the information.
The Hapsburgs
• Whenever an emperor of the Holy Roman
Empire died, the German princes met in a
diet, or assembly, to elect a new emperor. 
• In 1273, the princes elected Rudolf, a
member of the Hapsburg family, as
emperor. 
• He and members of his family served as
Holy Roman emperors for about the next
650 years. 
• One important Hapsburg was Maximilian I,
who became emperor in 1493.
44
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the information.
The Hapsburgs (cont.)
• He worked to extend the empire’s power all
through Europe. 
• By marrying his children into other
European royal families, he brought
countries under Hapsburg control.
45
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the information.
Section Assessment
How were the German emperors
able to control the office of Pope
in the late 900s and early 1000s?
Otto had freed the Pope from the
control of Roman nobles. In return,
the Pope crowned him Emperor of
the Holy Roman Empire.
46
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
How did the Hapsburgs come to
power?
They came to power through an
election in a diet, or assembly, of
German princes.
47
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Drawing Conclusions Why do
you think a strong rule by a king
or queen did not develop in
Germany?
Answers will vary but might include
the idea that Germany was a loose
grouping of states under the control
of German princes. Also, emperors
were elected by German princes
rather than by inheriting the position.
48
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw the diagram on page 422 of
your textbook, and use it to show
the achievements of German rulers
in the Middle Ages.
Completed charts will review efforts
to promote unity and expand German
power.
49
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the answer.
Spain
• The Moors conquered Spain in 711, bringing
learning and luxury. 
• Most Spaniards were Christians that
opposed Muslim rule and banded together
to drive out the Moors in the 1200s. 
• Spain was made up of several kingdoms;
the most powerful were Castile and
Aragon. 
• In 1469, Prince Ferdinand of Aragon
married Princess Isabella of Castile, uniting
their kingdoms into one country.
51
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the information. Section 5 begins on page 423 of your textbook.
Spain (cont.)
• King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella sent
royal officials called corregidores to govern
the towns. 
• Ferdinand and Isabella believed all
Spaniards should be Catholic in order for
Spain to be truly unified. 
• Believing these new Christians were
practicing their old religion in secret, they set
up the Spanish Inquisition. 
• In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella told the
remaining Jews to convert or leave the
country.
52
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the information.
Spain (cont.)
• In 1502, the Catholic Monarchs ordered the
remaining Moors to convert or leave. 
• Spain was now weakened, because most
of its artisans, merchants, bankers,
doctors, and educators had been either
Jews or Moors. 
• After these people left, there were few
trained Spaniards to take their place.
53
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the information.
Section Assessment
How did Ferdinand and Isabella
control the nobles and keep
order in Spain?
They took away some of their
privileges, sent corregidores to
govern the towns, and set up special
courts in the countryside.
54
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
How did Ferdinand and Isabella
use religion to unite Spain?
They forced the Jews and the Moors
to convert to Christianity or leave the
country.
55
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Predicting Consequences How
might Spain have been different if
the Spanish king and queen had
allowed freedom of religion?
Answers will vary but might include
that the artisans, merchants,
bankers, doctors, and educators who
were needed to keep the nation
strong would not have left Spain.
56
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw the diagram that is on page 424
of your textbook, and use it to show
the causes and effects of Ferdinand
and Isabella’s united Catholic
monarchy.
causes–opposition to Moorish control, marriage
of Ferdinand and Isabella
effects–decreased privileges for nobles; use of
corregidores; persecution of non-Catholics and
establishment of Inquisition; defeat of Moors at
Granada; loss of most of Spain’s artisans,
merchants, bankers, doctors, and educators
who had been Jews or Moors.
57
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the answer.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide
• The rise of trade and towns in western
Europe led to the rise of strong
monarchies. 
• The Capetian dynasty strengthened the
French monarchy by granting town
charters and by setting up a national court,
a national currency, a tax system, and the
Estates-General. 
• William the Conqueror defeated the
English at the Battle of Hastings in 1066
and brought the system of feudalism to
England.
59
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the information.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• Henry II strengthened England by
imposing his law on the land and by
reforming courts. 
• In 1215, English nobles forced King John to
sign the Magna Carta, which established
the idea that a king was not above the
law. 
• In 1272, Edward I set up Parliament to
advise him. 
• During the Hundred Years’ War, fought
between 1337 and 1453, Joan of Arc led
armies to force the English from France.
60
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the information.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• Because of the Hundred Years’ War, both
France and England were unified and the
common people became more important. 
• The Pope crowned Otto I emperor of the
Holy Roman Empire in 962. However, future
German emperors had a hard time uniting
unruly German princes. 
• The Hapsburg family ruled the Holy Roman
Empire from 1273 until the early 1900s. 
• By 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella had
conquered the Moors and made Spain a
united Catholic country.
61
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the information.
Understanding the Main Idea
How did the Estates-General help
strengthen the French monarchy?
It united the nobles, clergy, and
townspeople.
63
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
What changes did the Magna Carta
bring about in English government?
It increased the nobles’ power, gave
freemen the right to a trial, and said
that the king had to obey laws.
64
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
Why did the position of the
common people in England and
France improve as a result of the
Hundred Years’ War?
It improved because many had died,
and those who remained were greatly
needed as workers.
65
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
How did Otto I set up a Christian
Roman Empire in western Europe?
He made his loyal followers bishops
and abbots and gave them
government posts.
66
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
What did the Moors bring to Spain?
They brought learning and luxury.
67
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
What was the purpose of the
Spanish Inquisition?
Its purpose was to deal with heresy.
68
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
If you had been King John, how
would you have reacted to the
demand that you sign the Magna
Carta? Explain your answer.
69
Critical Thinking
If you had been Joan of Arc, what
decision would you have made
about attacking the English at
Orleans? Explain your answer.
70
Critical Thinking
How did the Hundred Years’ War
both help and hurt England and
France?
It helped by unifying them but hurt
the countries by resulting in the
deaths of many peasants.
71
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
Would you have agreed or disagreed
with Ferdinand and Isabella that all
people in a country should follow
the same religion? Explain.
72
Geography in History
Place Refer to the map on page 422
of your textbook. There were
several places outside the control of
either the English or the Holy Roman
Empire. What geographic features
do these places have in common?
They are on the outer fringes of
Europe and are widely spaced and
most often surrounded by water.
73
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display
the answer.
If medieval monarchs had been able
to access modern technology, they
might have avoided some of their
problems. Assume the role of one of
these monarchs and name a modern
invention you could have used and
what problem it would have solved.
74
Explore online information about the
topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human
Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive
activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the
chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the
browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty
connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
http://www.humanheritage.glencoe.com
76
1066 A.D.
1272 A.D.
William the
Conqueror
invades England
Edward I sets
up Parliament
1215 A.D.
Magna Carta
is signed
77
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the information.
1273 A.D.
1492 A.D.
Hapsburg
dynasty is
founded
Ferdinand and
Isabella unite
Spain
1337 A.D.
Hundred
Years’ War
begins
78
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the information.
Joan of Arc
c.
1412–1431
French Heroine
Born a peasant, Joan began to hear heavenly
voices as a child. They urged her to drive the
English from France. At age 17, Joan
convinced the king’s son to give her an army.
She battled the English for seven months
before she was captured. The English turned
her over to Church officials sympathetic to
their cause. They demanded that Joan deny
that she was guided by heaven. When she
refused, they burned her at the stake. A later
court found Joan innocent, and in 1920 the
Catholic Church declared her a saint.
79
Royal Advice
Louis IX gave his son this advice on
governing: “Hold yourself steadfast to
your subjects and vassals …. And if a
poor man have a quarrel with a rich
man, sustain the poor rather the rich,
until this truth is made clear.”
80
The Final Say
The Domesday Book got this popular
name because people said there was
no chance of arguing with its records.
That is, its determinations were as final
as those of God on doomsday–the Day
of Judgment.
81
Language
Constitutions
82
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Language
For years after the Norman Conquest,
the upper classes in England spoke
Norman French, the lower classes
Anglo-Saxon English. Modern English
preserves this double heritage. Words
for farm animals are mainly AngloSaxon: ox and cow, pig, sheep. Words
for cooked meat, once served mainly to
the upper classes, come from French:
beef, pork, mutton (from boeuf, porc,
mouton).
83
Constitutions
Unlike the United States, the United
Kingdom does not have a single
written document called a
“constitution.” Instead, British leaders
govern according to a series of laws
and charters. The oldest of those is the
Magna Carta.
84
Equal Footing
In 1990 Spain finally overturned the
1492 order calling for the expulsion or
conversion of the Jews. Now both
Judaism and Protestantism are on an
equal basis with Roman Catholicism,
giving all three religions the same tax
breaks and privileges.
85
End of Custom Shows
WARNING! Do Not Remove
This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom
shows and return to the main presentation.