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Transcript
Notes Ch. 6 - The Rock Cycle & Rock Types – Sections 1-4
Three types of Rocks

igneous, ____________________________, metamorphic

can change ______________ through the Rock Cycle

rock cycle: conditions under which any kind of rock can be changed into an other kind of rock.
Much of the rock of the ____________________________ has gone through the rock cycle
____________________________ times.
Rock Properties (chemical composition and physical properties)
Such as _____________________, density, and hardness
 how stable is the rock against __________________, temperature and pressure.
how does it _____________________ apart

depends on ____________________ and how the rock formed.
Sedimentary rocks - formed on Earth's surface, due to ____________________________ and deposition.
____________________________ - formed on surface or in crust from magma or lava cooling
Metamorphic rocks - formed in the crust due to ____________________________ movement
Igneous Rock

“from _______________”

forms when _________________ (melted rock) cools and hardens

composition limited to the __________________ elements of Earth’s crust:_______________
Intrusive vs. Extrusive
Intrusive



___________________ cools deep inside
Extrusive
crust

volcanic eruptions expose magma to Earth’s
intrudes, or enters, ____________________
surface where it cools and hardens
to cool and harden

ex. granite
magma ____________________ to
Earth’s surface is called lava

ex. _______________
Sedimentary Rock

sediment – rocks, mineral crystals, or ___________________that has been broken into fragments

___________________ (erosion)  transport  deposition  lithification (turned to rock through
compaction and cementation)

compaction = to compress or ___________________ (take up less space)

cementation = ___________________ from water glue sediment together

gives us ___________________ about Earth’s past

___________________ valuable resources (ex. water and oil)
Clastic vs. Nonclastic
Clastic

formed by ___________________ processes
Nonclastic
that broke rock into ___________________,

formed by non-weathering processes
sand, or clay

classified by mineral ___________________

transported by water, wind, or ice

chemical

classified based on ___________________of

forms from minerals dissolved in water
sediment

evaporation causes minerals to

ex. ___________________and shale
precipitate, or fall out, from water

organic

forms from the remains of
___________________

ex. limestone, rock salt, coal
Sedimentary Rock Features

give geologists clues about what was happening on Earth when a layer of sediment was deposited

stratification – layering of ___________________


ripple marks – caused by wind or water on sand


sediment once part of ___________________or riverbed
mud cracks – muddy ___________________ dry and shrink


change in ___________________, change in sea level
river’s flood plain or dry lake bed
___________________ – remains or traces of ancient plant and animals
Metamorphic Rock

“to ___________________ form”

high temp. and ___________________ deep inside Earth can cause minerals in rocks to become
unstable and rearrange into layers (foliation) or form larger ___________________

NO ___________________OCCURS!!!!!


melting rock produces magma (igneous rock)
helps geologists study temp. and pressure conditions, __________________________movements,
composition of ___________________ rock and the geologic history when rock metamorphosed
Where does Metamorphic Rock Form?
1. Forms in small areas affected by the heat from nearby magma
2. Forms over ______________________ of square miles during periods of high tectonic activity.
  movement of 1 tectonic plate against another generates great _______________ and pressure at
the boundaries of the tectonic plates
h
heat and pressure --> changes existing rocks structure / form = metamorphosis of the rock
Foliated vs. Nonfoliated
Foliated


___________________ dark and light layers
Nonfoliated
due to extreme pressure

formed by high __________________, but
low pressure equal on all sides
ex. slate

no __________________
ex. marble
Metamorphic Rock Break Up
•
Happens after being __________________ to the surface
•
Due to conditions under which it was formed
· Rock may have zones of _____________________ that form when it is under intense pressure.
•
 When rock is uplifted to the Earth's surface and no longer has high _______________ holding it
together it may break apart along those ____________________of weakness.

Foliated (layered) metamorphic rock -- breaks apart at the different layers
Rock Cycle
Rock Cycle

any of the 3 rocks types can be __________________into another rock type

possible changes and outcomes

weathering, _________________, and lithification  sedimentary

changes in pressure or temp.  __________________

_______________ and cooling  igneous