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The History and Pioneers of
“while we read history we make it”…
G.W. Curtis (1842-1892)
Roots of Criminological Theory
Karl Popper: “Theories are the nets cast
to catch the world, to rationalize, to
explain, and to master it”
two schools of criminological thought…
all theories can trace their influence/roots
Roots of Social Reform
Basis of ‘all’ Criminological Theory
Response to harsh retributive
punishment (Dark Ages)
Wergild - 1st victim compensation
Ordeals – duals to the death
Oath-helpers: testify your innocence
… punishment harsh, often brutal, and
CLASSICAL… period of Enlightment
Cesare Becarria (1734-1794) - Box 4.1
“On crimes and punishment” in 1764
(age 26)
sought naturalistic explanations
FOUR Grand Principles:
Equality “lei-motiv”
… nullum crimen sin lege
… nulla poena sine lege
… “social contract” J.J. Rousseau
Utilitarianism “greatest good”
… certainty, severity, & swiftness
Humanitarianism – death penalty?
Evaluation of the Classical School:
Enduring influence –Canadian
social/criminal justice policy
Emerged during time of turmoil
Intuitive based (heuristic)/ unverifiable
? Role of motivation
Importance of: conflict, law, economy =
Work influenced: Voltaire, J. Bentham, J.
Howard, E. Kant
Concept of deterrence: (Box 4.3)
… social cost – commitment cost,
attachment costs, and stigma
Jeremy Bentham “felicitous calculus” math and greatest happiness for the …
number (Box 4.2)
premise of free-will…
specific: individual
general: future criminality
… evaluations - inconclusive
… ? Commitment/attachment, cost, and
Neo-classical School
Rossi (I), Gerrad, & Joly (Fr)…
flexibility into legal system (discretion)
intro subjective element (soft-determinism)
rational choice theory
French Revolution (1791) and French Penal
Code of 1812
Canadian legal system
! Singapore - swift & certain (flogging)
? Role of corporal punishment
von Hirsch “just deserts” model
P. Erhlich & W. Bonger - economic theory
H. Becker - labelling
C. Cornich - rational choice
A.Cohen & M. Felson - RAT!!
Risk of punishment as a deterrent
Neo-classical approach and plea bargain
Social contract, deterrence, and plea bargain
Scientific School/Positivist
Adolphe Quetelet & Michel Guerry
school of CARTOLOGY
… social statistics
… crime is a product of social conditions
POSITIVISM… the role of determinism and
Cesare Lombroso, R. Garafalo, E. Ferri
the “holy three”
Father of Modern Criminology
… born criminal vs. occasional criminal, insane,
and criminal by passion
… first to write about the female offender
Enduring influence on criminology
… sociobiology (Sarnoff Mednick)
… biopsychology (C.R. Jeffery)
… bio-environmental (Adrian Raine)
… evolutive theory (Lee Ellis)
Concept of parens patriae
Law vs. Science
Classicism = retribution and revenge
Positivism = reform and rehabilitation
… study Figure 4-1
? best of both worlds… possible
integration interdisciplinary approach
Pioneers in criminal justice
Alexander Maconochie (1787-1860)
… Australia and penal reforms (rights)
… prisoners earn all they receive
… prison industries (e.g., chain gangs, building
owe institutions, farming, etc…)
!not punish but serve out their punishment
John Howard (1726-1790) – J.H.
… classification & vocational training
… humane treatment & constructive
Sir Robert Peel - prime minister
formalized policing
 Uniforms and discipline
community policing… foundation today
Key principles of conduct
Use minimal force, impartial service of law,
efficiency is an absence of crime!
Charles Doe - criminal responsibility
Pedro Montereo - train lawyers & judges
in social sciences
Issac Ray
… mitigating circumstances
… expert testimony (insanity, forensics, DNA)
… one of the founders of APA
Alphonse Bertillon – anthropometry
Hans Gross – Austrian School and
Modus operandi
Marc Ansel – social defence
… UN’s stand in 1948
…protection over punishment
… respect breeds responsibility (Box 4.17)
Prevention as a School of Thought:
Oscar Newman – modify the environment
C.R. Jeffery – interaction of biology, behaviour,
and environment
proactive vs. reactive process
… Police - ‘geoprofiling’, target hardening
… address the OPPORTUNITY (real or
perceived) to prevent
… “fixing broken windows”
“Canadian” Pioneers (Appendix 4)
Making their mark…
Denise Szabo (1929-…)
“father of Canadian criminology”
psychological and historical context
criminology and criminal policy are
Ezzat Fattah (1929-…)
lawyer and Austrian School (victimology)
Against the death penalty
Amnesty International
restorative justice
Gwynne Nettler (1913-…) - U of A
bridge psychology and sociology
“Explaining crime” ‘74!
Always prepared to challenge existing ideas of
justice and explanations
Tadeusz Grygier (1915-…) – Ottawa
Influenced by life experience – Gulag
Social protection code – mercy, fairness,
& understanding
Champion of sentencing reform
James Hackler (1930-…)
“doing less is probably better than doing
orientation ‘left-realism’
comparative work in youth justice
strong concern for humanity
Andre Normandeau (1942-…)
Empirical criminology
Sellin’s index of crime
Blends European and N.A. ideas
Paul and Pat Brantinghams
… environmental criminology
new emerging pioneers such as:
… R. Menzies, A. Doob, M. LeBlanc, R.
History of criminology is diverse and
Two major schools of thought
Most theories trace their roots to either
Classical or Positivist ideas
Disciplines calls for an integrated and
interdisciplinary approach
Canadian ‘pioneers’ making their mark
Had enough for this week?