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The History and Pioneers of Criminology “while we read history we make it”… G.W. Curtis (1842-1892) Roots of Criminological Theory Karl Popper: “Theories are the nets cast to catch the world, to rationalize, to explain, and to master it” two schools of criminological thought… all theories can trace their influence/roots CLASSICAL vs. POSITIVIST Roots of Social Reform Basis of ‘all’ Criminological Theory Response to harsh retributive punishment (Dark Ages) Wergild - 1st victim compensation Ordeals – duals to the death Oath-helpers: testify your innocence … punishment harsh, often brutal, and inconsistent CLASSICAL… period of Enlightment Cesare Becarria (1734-1794) - Box 4.1 “On crimes and punishment” in 1764 (age 26) sought naturalistic explanations FOUR Grand Principles: Equality “lei-motiv” Liberty … nullum crimen sin lege … nulla poena sine lege … “social contract” J.J. Rousseau Utilitarianism “greatest good” … certainty, severity, & swiftness Humanitarianism – death penalty? Evaluation of the Classical School: Enduring influence –Canadian social/criminal justice policy Emerged during time of turmoil Intuitive based (heuristic)/ unverifiable ? Role of motivation Importance of: conflict, law, economy = theory Work influenced: Voltaire, J. Bentham, J. Howard, E. Kant Concept of deterrence: (Box 4.3) … social cost – commitment cost, attachment costs, and stigma Jeremy Bentham “felicitous calculus” math and greatest happiness for the … number (Box 4.2) premise of free-will… specific: individual general: future criminality … evaluations - inconclusive … ? Commitment/attachment, cost, and stigma Neo-classical School Rossi (I), Gerrad, & Joly (Fr)… flexibility into legal system (discretion) intro subjective element (soft-determinism) rational choice theory French Revolution (1791) and French Penal Code of 1812 Canadian legal system ! Singapore - swift & certain (flogging) ? Role of corporal punishment von Hirsch “just deserts” model P. Erhlich & W. Bonger - economic theory H. Becker - labelling C. Cornich - rational choice A.Cohen & M. Felson - RAT!! Risk of punishment as a deterrent Neo-classical approach and plea bargain SUMMARY Social contract, deterrence, and plea bargain Scientific School/Positivist Adolphe Quetelet & Michel Guerry school of CARTOLOGY … social statistics … crime is a product of social conditions (Environment) CPTED POSITIVISM… the role of determinism and science Cesare Lombroso, R. Garafalo, E. Ferri the “holy three” Father of Modern Criminology Atavism … born criminal vs. occasional criminal, insane, and criminal by passion … first to write about the female offender Enduring influence on criminology … sociobiology (Sarnoff Mednick) … biopsychology (C.R. Jeffery) … bio-environmental (Adrian Raine) … evolutive theory (Lee Ellis) Concept of parens patriae Law vs. Science Classicism = retribution and revenge Positivism = reform and rehabilitation … study Figure 4-1 ? best of both worlds… possible integration interdisciplinary approach CRIMINOLOGY AT WORK Pioneers in criminal justice PRISON REFORM: Alexander Maconochie (1787-1860) … Australia and penal reforms (rights) … prisoners earn all they receive … prison industries (e.g., chain gangs, building owe institutions, farming, etc…) !not punish but serve out their punishment John Howard (1726-1790) – J.H. Society … classification & vocational training … humane treatment & constructive work LAW ENFORCEMENT: Sir Robert Peel - prime minister formalized policing Uniforms and discipline community policing… foundation today Key principles of conduct Use minimal force, impartial service of law, efficiency is an absence of crime! LEGAL REFORM: Charles Doe - criminal responsibility Pedro Montereo - train lawyers & judges in social sciences Issac Ray … mitigating circumstances … expert testimony (insanity, forensics, DNA) … one of the founders of APA Criminalistics… Alphonse Bertillon – anthropometry Hans Gross – Austrian School and victimology Modus operandi Marc Ansel – social defence … UN’s stand in 1948 …protection over punishment … respect breeds responsibility (Box 4.17) Prevention as a School of Thought: Oscar Newman – modify the environment C.R. Jeffery – interaction of biology, behaviour, and environment proactive vs. reactive process … Police - ‘geoprofiling’, target hardening … address the OPPORTUNITY (real or perceived) to prevent … “fixing broken windows” “Canadian” Pioneers (Appendix 4) Making their mark… Denise Szabo (1929-…) “father of Canadian criminology” psychological and historical context criminology and criminal policy are inseparable Ezzat Fattah (1929-…) lawyer and Austrian School (victimology) Against the death penalty Amnesty International restorative justice Gwynne Nettler (1913-…) - U of A bridge psychology and sociology “Explaining crime” ‘74! Always prepared to challenge existing ideas of justice and explanations Tadeusz Grygier (1915-…) – Ottawa Influenced by life experience – Gulag Social protection code – mercy, fairness, & understanding Champion of sentencing reform James Hackler (1930-…) “doing less is probably better than doing more!” orientation ‘left-realism’ comparative work in youth justice strong concern for humanity Andre Normandeau (1942-…) Empirical criminology Sellin’s index of crime Blends European and N.A. ideas Paul and Pat Brantinghams … environmental criminology new emerging pioneers such as: … R. Menzies, A. Doob, M. LeBlanc, R. Trembley... SUMMARY History of criminology is diverse and complex Two major schools of thought Most theories trace their roots to either Classical or Positivist ideas Disciplines calls for an integrated and interdisciplinary approach Canadian ‘pioneers’ making their mark Had enough for this week?