Visibility Matters: The Pursuit of American Belonging in an Age of
... probes a series of key moments between the mid-1910s and the late 1970s in order to lay
bare the roots of this notion, trace its development, and weigh its implications. During
the twentieth century, racial and ethnic minorities and other marginalized groups staked
claims to full citizenship and sei ...
... sentences ranging from 3 years to 15 to 20 years. 18.307o of the convicted defendants
received sentences between three to four years, 11.4076 between four to five years,
30.607o between five to seven years, and 21.9% of the sentences were from seven
to ten years in duration. Id. In addition, sentenc ...
A Guide to Evidence-Based Prisoner Reentry Practices
... TABLE OF CONTENTS
FORWARD ........................................................................................................................ I
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW ................................................................................... 1
EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE CONCEPTS ...... ...
QUINTA REUNIÓN DE MINISTROS DE JUSTICIA
... Second Summit of the Americas (Santiago, Chile, 1998) ............................................ 5
Dialogue on the Topic of Administration of Justice in the Americas,
General Assembly of the OAS (Caracas, Venezuela, June 1998)) ............................. 6
Second Meeting of Ministers of Justice ...
... example of wealthy individuals receiving special treatment when being
sentenced.4 The current trend in the United States is to issue lighter sentences to the wealthy compared to those of lower socioeconomic status—
sending the message that wealthy people are above the law, when under the
law, all pe ...
Capital Punishment: A Philosophical Rejection of
... with the aforementioned Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Embodying a hedonistic act
interpretation of utility, classical utilitarianism expanded in the 19th century to mean the
promotion of right actions as bringing about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of
people. The ethical theory's pr ...
NCSC Sentencing Survey Report - National Center for State Courts
... prevention and rehabilitation over enforcement and punishment as the best way to deal with
crime (58% vs. 39%). Rehabilitation is seen as achievable for many offenders – eight in 10
(79%) reject the notion that little can be done to turn someone into a productive citizen once
they turn to crime. But ...
The Morality of Mercy
... than acts of mercy—for example, efforts to redress procedural or factual errors so
as, in fact, to impose just deserts; efforts to obtain gains in social utility; efforts to
restore a victim’s sense of power and control by honoring her wishes as to the
punishment accorded her aggressor. Indeed, as I ...
... white collar offenders in which she found that “[w]omen’s economic marginality, not
liberation or occupational mobility,” explained their offending, and that men’s white
collar offending was not the “norm” from which women deviate (p. 70).
Subjecting a first-time female offender to incarceration has ...
The Effect of Plea Bargaining Vs. Trial Conviction
... removed entirely by the mandatory minimums, prosecutors found it necessary to allow
defendants to plea to a lesser charge in order to get the lesser sentence. He notes that
many have argued that when a guilty person plea bargains to a lesser charge, it permits
the defendant to escape the legal conse ...
Drug Policy Guide - Drug Policy Alliance
... balanced response.
Although individual countries have adopted different approaches to this subject, some of which are
outlined in this Guide, there is a clear consensus that drug policies must be based on facts rather than
on ideology. Drug policies should take into account different cultures and no ...
The Punishment of Other People`s Children
... the possible solutions to the basic problems faced within juvenile detention facilities and
gain perspective on those issues from wards, probation staff, and high school staff within
the camps. My experience within juvenile detention centers and literature review has
shown that rehabilitation and tr ...
between prohibition and legalization the dutch experiment in drug
... drug policy model has favored more mundane objectives such as de-escalation and normalization of drug problems. During the last twenty
years a rather coherent pattem of drug political instruments and practices
has been developed to further this basic goal. They will be described and
explained in the ...
Tamara L. Roleff, Book Editor
... the criminal courts with kids fourteen or fifteen who might
have been experimenting with a single stick of marijuana and
who could face a lifelong disadvantage with a criminal record?
Isn’t there a better way?” They contend that the resources of
the criminal justice system should be focused on prose ...
In the shadow of the prison gates: an institutional analysis of early
... Penal administrators operating in 1960 would have recognised many of the central
concerns of criminal justice at the close of the 20th century and yet, the re-configuration
of criminal justice and the role of the liberal democratic state within that process would
no doubt seem extraordinary and deep ...
The Costs of Abusing Probationary Sentences
... offender's neck, waiting for the inevitable violation. Not
surprisingly, recidivism and failure to adhere to the technical
requirements of probation have created a burgeoning prison
population. Having placed an offender on probation, a court
often feels compelled to respond to a violation with
Community sentences since 2000: How they work – and why they
... accompanied a release of
in average time spent in
sentencing statistics with a
prison since 2000, in
statement welcoming the
England and Wales.
steady increase in the
average prison sentence
handed down in the period since 2010 when the coalition
government took power. The statement pointed to the
Crime, Politics and Late-modernity: an exploration of community
... I was told early on that a criminology PhD needed be empirically grounded and as a
result the first incarnation of my PhD was an exploration of influence of ideology on
policy and its translation into practice. This entailed semi-structured interviews with a
range of statutory and voluntary practiti ...
... consider what punishment is. The orthodox analysis of the concept of “punishment” is that
developed by H.L.A. Hart, who drew on the work of Antony Flew (Flew) and Stanley Benn
(Benn). According to the Flew-Benn-Hart definition of “punishment”, as it is sometimes
called (although Hart does not, in fa ...
Chicago Report of Mayoral Caucus on Reentry
... But most Americans have typically paid little or no attention
to people coming back from prison.5 At least 95 percent of
all state prisoners will be released at some point.6 This year,
our country’s prisons will release nearly 650,000 individuals,
an increase from 170,000 in 1980.7 This number does ...
Clemency and the Unitary Executive
... But criminal cases are different. The President is not limited to frontend controls or removing prosecutors if he or she believes prosecutors have
gone too far. The President has broad and explicit back-end control as well.
The Pardon Clause vests the President with “Power to Grant Reprieves and
bromley briefings prison factfile
... cope with the criminal justice system.
The second report, Too Little Too Late, draws on
evidence from 57 independent monitoring boards.
It reveals that very many people who should have
been diverted into mental health or social care are
entering prisons, ill equipped to meet their needs,
and then be ...
The New Jim Crow
The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness is a book by Michelle Alexander, a civil rights litigator and legal scholar. Called the ""secular bible for a new social movement"" by Cornel West, the book discusses race-related issues specific to African-American males and mass incarceration in the United States — though Alexander notes that the discrimination faced by African-American males is also prevalent among other minorities and socio-economically disadvantaged populations. Alexander's central premise, from which the book derives its title, is that ""mass incarceration is, metaphorically, the New Jim Crow.""Though the conventional point of view holds that discrimination has mostly ended with the civil rights movement reforms of the 1960s, Alexander claims the U.S. criminal justice system uses the War on Drugs as a primary tool for enforcing traditional, as well as new, modes of discrimination and repression. These new modes of racism have led to not only the highest rate of incarceration in the world, but also an even greater imprisonment of African American men. Were present trends to continue, Alexander writes, the United States will imprison one-third of its African American population. When combined with the fact that whites are more likely to commit drug crimes than people of color, the issue becomes clear for Alexander: ""The primary targets of [the penal system's] control can be defined largely by race.""This, ultimately, leads Alexander to believe that mass incarceration is ""a stunningly comprehensive and well-disguised system of racialized social control that functions in a manner strikingly similar to Jim Crow."" The culmination of this social control is what Alexander calls a ""racial caste system,"" a type of stratification wherein African-Americans are kept in an inferior position. Its emergence, she believes, is a direct response to The Civil Rights Movement. It is because of this that Alexander argues for issues with mass incarceration to be addressed as issues of racial justice and civil rights. To approach these matters as anything but would be to fortify this new racial caste. Thus, Alexander aims to mobilize the civil rights community to move the incarceration issue to the forefront of its agenda and to provide factual information, data, arguments and a point of reference for those interested in pursuing the issue. Her broader goal is the revamping of the prevailing mentality regarding human rights, equality and equal opportunities in America, to prevent future cyclical recurrence of what she sees as ""racial control under changing disguise.""