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Ethnic Studies Unit 5 Overview Goal: • Deepen our understanding of California history, particularly the experiences of Native Californians and African Americans. • Learn the types of resistance to oppression that people of color engaged in during colonization. Content: Experiences we will focus on: 5-1: Will focus on Native Californian life and resistance during and after Spanish colonization 5-2: Will focus on Native Californian life and resistance during and after Anglo-American colonization 5-3 Will focus on African Americans and their lives in Anglo-American dominated California Themes: • 3 “I’s” of Oppression • 3 “I’s” of Resistance • 3 “I’s” of Violence • Imperialism/Colonialism • Cultural Genocide • Physical Genocide • De Facto Segregation • De Jure Segregation 3 I’s Oppression • Definition: • Example: • Individual: When someone who is oppressed begins to believe what their oppressor says about them. For example, when women follow standards of beauty that are defined by men. • Inter-personal: When one individual actively oppresses another individual. For example: Calling someone an oppressive word: “Nigger, Spic, Chink”. Also, when someone uses their individual power to restrict or limit the opportunities of someone else. • Institutional: When an organization or belief actively oppresses individuals or groups of individuals. For example: Police profiling of people of color. The differences in sentencing between white convicts and convicts of color. Essential Question: What type of oppression do you think is most impactful and why? 3 I’s of Resistance • Definition: The act of not complying against oppression or perceived oppression, injustice or unfairness. • • Examples: Passive: Subtle resistance. Resistance that doesn’t directly confront the oppressor or threat. Always non-violent. Things like playing dumb, or not complying with a request. • Active: Directly confronting an oppressor or threat. This can be done violently or nonviolently. • Individual: Acts done by people either within themselves (resisting society’s expectations, like not using oppressive language) or without help or assistance from others. • Interpersonal: When one person resists the oppression or threat of another person. • Institutional: When an institution refuses to change, adapt or include the demands of others. For example, a police department fighting against non-police oversight of police activities. Essential Question: What kinds of resistance do you engage in? Why do you do these things? 3 I’s of Violence • Definition: The act of harming someone. This can be done on several levels: emotionally/mentally, physically, spiritually, or culturally. • Examples: • Passive: Passive violence is violence that is not obvious, and is often times unintentional. Some examples include: pollution, harming one’s self esteem through media, or mis-education. • Active: Violence that is obvious and almost always physical. Examples include: fighting, killing, calling for groups to be isolated or harmed. Speech that hurts or harms people can be very actively violent. • Individual: Violence against one’s self. Having low self-esteem, believing negative stereotypes or even physically harming one’s self. • Interpersonal: Harming someone else, either emotionally or physically. • Institutional: Military violence; prisons; police relationships with poor communities or communities of color. Laws that segregate or take rights away from certain groups. Essential Question: What form of violence do you think is most impactful? Why? Imperialism/Colonialism • Definition: When a powerful country take control over a less powerful country. This is usually done through military force, but can be done by making less powerful countries economically dependent on the stronger country. This process is called colonization. • After colonization the more powerful country begins to send its citizens to the colony (less powerful country) to teach them in the ways of the more powerful country. The citizens of the colony are forced to learn the language, religion, laws and culture of the powerful country. The colony exports/sends many of its natural resources to the colonizing country to develop its economy. The colony is rarely, if ever, paid for these resources. • Example: The British Pilgrims in North America; the Conquistadores in Central and South America; the Japanese in East Asia (from the early 1900s to 1945). Essential Question: Do you believe that the US is an imperial state? Why or why not? Cultural Genocide • Definition: Cultural genocide is a term used to describe the deliberate destruction of the cultural heritage of a people or nation for political, military, religious, ideological, ethnic, or racial reasons. The people are allowed to exist, but they are either absorbed, moved or made culturally similar to those whom have issues with them. • Example: The treatment of Tibetans by the Chinese government. Missionary work in Africa, the Pacific or Latin America Essential Question: Do you think that Cultural Genocide has taken place in the United States? Why or Why not? Physical Genocide • Definition: Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group. • Example: The Jewish Holocaust; the Rwandan Genocide of 1994; The Armenian Genocide Essential Question: Why do you think groups engage in physical genocide against others? Do you think warfare is genocide? Why or why not? De Facto (day fak-toe) Segregation • Definition: Unintentional segregation/separation of groups. • Example: There aren’t any laws that prevent people of one racial group from living in the neighborhoods of others, but housing remains very segregated along racial lines in the U.S. • School segregation is also, today, de facto. Since school assignments are usually based on where people live, housing segregation leads to school segregation. Essential Question: Give 3 examples of de facto discrimination from your life or the lives of people you know. De Jure Segregation • Definition: Segregation forced by law. • Example: Jim Crow laws in the south that made African Americans and other people of color sit in separate waiting rooms, travel in separate compartments, and eat at separate restaurants. All of these were laws that were passed by elected officials. Essential Question: How does legal discrimination impact people today? What are some groups that are legally discriminated against today?