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Ethnic Studies Unit 5 Overview
• Deepen our understanding of California history, particularly the experiences of Native Californians
and African Americans.
• Learn the types of resistance to oppression that people of color engaged in during colonization.
Experiences we will focus on:
5-1: Will focus on Native Californian life and resistance during and after Spanish colonization
5-2: Will focus on Native Californian life and resistance during and after Anglo-American colonization
5-3 Will focus on African Americans and their lives in Anglo-American dominated California
• 3 “I’s” of Oppression
• 3 “I’s” of Resistance
• 3 “I’s” of Violence
• Imperialism/Colonialism
• Cultural Genocide
• Physical Genocide
• De Facto Segregation
• De Jure Segregation
3 I’s Oppression
Individual: When someone who is oppressed begins to believe what their oppressor says about
them. For example, when women follow standards of beauty that are defined by men.
Inter-personal: When one individual actively oppresses another individual. For example: Calling
someone an oppressive word: “Nigger, Spic, Chink”. Also, when someone uses their individual
power to restrict or limit the opportunities of someone else.
Institutional: When an organization or belief actively oppresses individuals or groups of individuals.
For example: Police profiling of people of color. The differences in sentencing between white
convicts and convicts of color.
Essential Question: What type of oppression do you think is most impactful and why?
3 I’s of Resistance
Definition: The act of not complying against oppression or perceived oppression, injustice or
Passive: Subtle resistance. Resistance that doesn’t directly confront the oppressor or threat.
Always non-violent. Things like playing dumb, or not complying with a request.
Active: Directly confronting an oppressor or threat. This can be done violently or nonviolently.
Individual: Acts done by people either within themselves (resisting society’s expectations, like not
using oppressive language) or without help or assistance from others.
Interpersonal: When one person resists the oppression or threat of another person.
Institutional: When an institution refuses to change, adapt or include the demands of others. For
example, a police department fighting against non-police oversight of police activities.
Essential Question: What kinds of resistance do you engage in? Why do you do these
3 I’s of Violence
Definition: The act of harming someone. This can be done on several levels: emotionally/mentally, physically,
spiritually, or culturally.
Passive: Passive violence is violence that is not obvious, and is often times unintentional. Some examples include:
pollution, harming one’s self esteem through media, or mis-education.
Active: Violence that is obvious and almost always physical. Examples include: fighting, killing, calling for groups
to be isolated or harmed. Speech that hurts or harms people can be very actively violent.
Individual: Violence against one’s self. Having low self-esteem, believing negative stereotypes or even physically
harming one’s self.
Interpersonal: Harming someone else, either emotionally or physically.
Institutional: Military violence; prisons; police relationships with poor communities or communities of color. Laws
that segregate or take rights away from certain groups.
Essential Question: What form of violence do you think is most impactful? Why?
Definition: When a powerful country take control over a less powerful country.
This is usually done through military force, but can be done by making less
powerful countries economically dependent on the stronger country. This process
is called colonization.
After colonization the more powerful country begins to send its citizens to the
colony (less powerful country) to teach them in the ways of the more powerful
country. The citizens of the colony are forced to learn the language, religion, laws
and culture of the powerful country. The colony exports/sends many of its natural
resources to the colonizing country to develop its economy. The colony is rarely, if
ever, paid for these resources.
Example: The British Pilgrims in North America; the Conquistadores in Central and
South America; the Japanese in East Asia (from the early 1900s to 1945).
Essential Question: Do you believe that the US is an imperial state? Why or why not?
Cultural Genocide
• Definition: Cultural genocide is a term used to describe the
deliberate destruction of the cultural heritage of a people
or nation for political, military, religious, ideological, ethnic,
or racial reasons. The people are allowed to exist, but they
are either absorbed, moved or made culturally similar to
those whom have issues with them.
• Example: The treatment of Tibetans by the Chinese
government. Missionary work in Africa, the Pacific or Latin
Essential Question: Do you think that Cultural Genocide has
taken place in the United States? Why or Why not?
Physical Genocide
• Definition: Genocide is the deliberate and systematic
destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial,
religious, or national group.
• Example: The Jewish Holocaust; the Rwandan Genocide of
1994; The Armenian Genocide
Essential Question: Why do you think groups engage in
physical genocide against others? Do you think warfare is
genocide? Why or why not?
De Facto (day fak-toe) Segregation
• Definition: Unintentional segregation/separation of groups.
• Example: There aren’t any laws that prevent people of one racial
group from living in the neighborhoods of others, but housing
remains very segregated along racial lines in the U.S.
• School segregation is also, today, de facto. Since school assignments
are usually based on where people live, housing segregation leads
to school segregation.
Essential Question: Give 3 examples of de facto discrimination from
your life or the lives of people you know.
De Jure Segregation
• Definition: Segregation forced by law.
• Example: Jim Crow laws in the south that made African
Americans and other people of color sit in separate
waiting rooms, travel in separate compartments, and
eat at separate restaurants. All of these were laws that
were passed by elected officials.
Essential Question: How does legal discrimination impact
people today? What are some groups that are legally
discriminated against today?