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Ancient Greece
Relative Geography
Geographic Setting
• Mountainous
• Excellent harbors –
constantly on the
sea and set up
colonies on the
islands.
• b/c of mountains,
many separate
communities set up.
Proximity to other civilizations
Development of writing
City -States
• The two main city-states in ancient Greece
were Athens and Sparta.
City -States
• Acropolis – hilltop fortress/everything
centered from there.
Democracy
• Athens was the first city-state to develop
democracy! (Democracy is a Greek invention)
• Direct Democracy: all citizens participate in
government, rather than with representatives.
• Limited Democracy: only citizens (free men
born in Athens could participate)
Do Now:
• Read page 120-122 in
textbook.
• Sparta vs. Athens exercise.
Greek Philosophers
Socrates
Plato
Aristotle
Socrates
• Like Confucius and Buddha – seeking a code of
conduct. REASON AND TRUTH!
• Socratic Method – question and answer
techniques that would eventually help you
find the truth.
• Arrested for “corrupting the youth and
disrespecting the gods.” – Sentenced to death.
• Did not run away, even though people told
him to, because he thought that is was
important to obey the law.
Plato
•
•
•
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•
Student of Socrates
Wrote Socrates’ ideas in The Dialogues
Wrote about his own ideas in The Republic
Rejected democracy – it killed Socrates
His ideas:
Philosophers for kings
Workers for food
Soldiers for protection of state
Aristotle
• Student of Plato
• Studied all kind of governments, and rejected
democracy.
• Logic – a new system of reason.
• Moral behavior.
• Moderation in all things (The Golden Mean)
• First European universities taught Aristotle’s
ideas to their students.
“The School of Athens”
Plato’s allegory of the cave
The Glory that was Greece
• Developed philosophy and logic
• Developed rhetoric (art of skillful speaking)
• Architecture: Parthenon (to goddess Athena)
Parthenon vs. modern architecture
Greek Literature
•
•
•
•
•
Developed drama
Developed tragedies
Developed comedy
Herodotus – called the “Father of History”
Historie means “inquire” in Greek.
Philip and Alexander the Great
• The city-states were always at war with each
other.
• Philip of Macedonia put the city-states under
one control …HIS.
Alexander the Great and the
Hellenistic Age
• Alexander the Great – Philip’s son
United Greece
Then he conquered more lands in the east
Hellenistic civilization: Greek, Egyptian,
Persian, and Indian cultures mix.
Hellenistic Civilization
Alexander vs. Darius of Persia
Do now
•
•
•
•
Label and color the map
Look at page 138 of the yellow book for help
Form groups of 4
Read page 139 (The legacy of Alexander) +
(Hellenistic Art and Science)
• Pick 3 important legacies and 2 contributions
to art and science.