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Ancient Greece
Relative Geography
Geographic Setting
• Mountainous
• Excellent harbors –
constantly on the
sea and set up
colonies on the
• b/c of mountains,
many separate
communities set up.
Proximity to other civilizations
Development of writing
City -States
• The two main city-states in ancient Greece
were Athens and Sparta.
City -States
• Acropolis – hilltop fortress/everything
centered from there.
• Athens was the first city-state to develop
democracy! (Democracy is a Greek invention)
• Direct Democracy: all citizens participate in
government, rather than with representatives.
• Limited Democracy: only citizens (free men
born in Athens could participate)
Do Now:
• Read page 120-122 in
• Sparta vs. Athens exercise.
Greek Philosophers
• Like Confucius and Buddha – seeking a code of
• Socratic Method – question and answer
techniques that would eventually help you
find the truth.
• Arrested for “corrupting the youth and
disrespecting the gods.” – Sentenced to death.
• Did not run away, even though people told
him to, because he thought that is was
important to obey the law.
Student of Socrates
Wrote Socrates’ ideas in The Dialogues
Wrote about his own ideas in The Republic
Rejected democracy – it killed Socrates
His ideas:
Philosophers for kings
Workers for food
Soldiers for protection of state
• Student of Plato
• Studied all kind of governments, and rejected
• Logic – a new system of reason.
• Moral behavior.
• Moderation in all things (The Golden Mean)
• First European universities taught Aristotle’s
ideas to their students.
“The School of Athens”
Plato’s allegory of the cave
The Glory that was Greece
• Developed philosophy and logic
• Developed rhetoric (art of skillful speaking)
• Architecture: Parthenon (to goddess Athena)
Parthenon vs. modern architecture
Greek Literature
Developed drama
Developed tragedies
Developed comedy
Herodotus – called the “Father of History”
Historie means “inquire” in Greek.
Philip and Alexander the Great
• The city-states were always at war with each
• Philip of Macedonia put the city-states under
one control …HIS.
Alexander the Great and the
Hellenistic Age
• Alexander the Great – Philip’s son
United Greece
Then he conquered more lands in the east
Hellenistic civilization: Greek, Egyptian,
Persian, and Indian cultures mix.
Hellenistic Civilization
Alexander vs. Darius of Persia
Do now
Label and color the map
Look at page 138 of the yellow book for help
Form groups of 4
Read page 139 (The legacy of Alexander) +
(Hellenistic Art and Science)
• Pick 3 important legacies and 2 contributions
to art and science.