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Ancient Greece Relative Geography Geographic Setting • Mountainous • Excellent harbors – constantly on the sea and set up colonies on the islands. • b/c of mountains, many separate communities set up. Proximity to other civilizations Development of writing City -States • The two main city-states in ancient Greece were Athens and Sparta. City -States • Acropolis – hilltop fortress/everything centered from there. Democracy • Athens was the first city-state to develop democracy! (Democracy is a Greek invention) • Direct Democracy: all citizens participate in government, rather than with representatives. • Limited Democracy: only citizens (free men born in Athens could participate) Do Now: • Read page 120-122 in textbook. • Sparta vs. Athens exercise. Greek Philosophers Socrates Plato Aristotle Socrates • Like Confucius and Buddha – seeking a code of conduct. REASON AND TRUTH! • Socratic Method – question and answer techniques that would eventually help you find the truth. • Arrested for “corrupting the youth and disrespecting the gods.” – Sentenced to death. • Did not run away, even though people told him to, because he thought that is was important to obey the law. Plato • • • • • Student of Socrates Wrote Socrates’ ideas in The Dialogues Wrote about his own ideas in The Republic Rejected democracy – it killed Socrates His ideas: Philosophers for kings Workers for food Soldiers for protection of state Aristotle • Student of Plato • Studied all kind of governments, and rejected democracy. • Logic – a new system of reason. • Moral behavior. • Moderation in all things (The Golden Mean) • First European universities taught Aristotle’s ideas to their students. “The School of Athens” Plato’s allegory of the cave The Glory that was Greece • Developed philosophy and logic • Developed rhetoric (art of skillful speaking) • Architecture: Parthenon (to goddess Athena) Parthenon vs. modern architecture Greek Literature • • • • • Developed drama Developed tragedies Developed comedy Herodotus – called the “Father of History” Historie means “inquire” in Greek. Philip and Alexander the Great • The city-states were always at war with each other. • Philip of Macedonia put the city-states under one control …HIS. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age • Alexander the Great – Philip’s son United Greece Then he conquered more lands in the east Hellenistic civilization: Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian cultures mix. Hellenistic Civilization Alexander vs. Darius of Persia Do now • • • • Label and color the map Look at page 138 of the yellow book for help Form groups of 4 Read page 139 (The legacy of Alexander) + (Hellenistic Art and Science) • Pick 3 important legacies and 2 contributions to art and science.