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VIVE FRANCE! An Intro to the French Revolution 1789 - 1794 Key Players • King Louis XVI • Queen Marie Antoinette • Maximilien Robespierre • The Jacobins • The Three Estates • The Guillotine The Three Estates • 1st Estate: the Clergy – Catholic Priests, bishops, other church people • 2nd Estate: the Nobility – Lords, Royalty • 3rd Estate: Commoners – Peasants, teachers, workers, doctors, lawyers, servants Tennis Court Oath • The 3 Estates made up the Estates General; each Estate = 1 vote • The 3rd Estate was locked out of a meeting hall so they could not vote for reforms – They created their own oath of allegiance: • Stay together until a Constitution was written • Resist pressure from the other Estates to disband • Rule of the people belongs to the people, not a King MISSION:BASTILLE • An angry mob of 300+ attacked Paris’ Bastille prison to get gunpowder and to release the king’s prisoners • They captured the Warden and his soldiers, dragged them through the streets, and beheaded them July 14, 1789 The Declaration of Rights • Basically, it was what the Revolution was about: – No absolute rulers – No privilege (sorry, rich people) – Liberty – Political equality – Signed by Louis XVI on Oct. 5, 1791 The Constitution of 1791 • Restricted the King’s power • Made a permanent law-making body – King couldn’t get rid of it • Everyone thought the Revolution was over but then . . . . . . The Jacobins • Very radical – – – – – No more social classes All should be able to vote Gov’t should give welfare to the poor No more monarchy Share the land, man! • Called a Nat’l Convention to make a new constitution in 1792 – It declared France a republic (no more monarchy!) – It ruled until 1794 Maximilien Robespierre A leader of the Jacobins Took over the gov’t by killing his rivals; under him, it was a dictatorship He started the Reign of Terror Overthrown and 4 days later, he was executed The Reign of Terror • Robespierre’s idea to destroy enemies of the Revolution • 18,500 – 40,000 people were killed • 1,300 were killed in the last month • It ended when Robespierre was sent to the guillotine Trial/Death of Louis XVI • Nat’l Convention acted as a court • It tried Louis for treason • Convicted of treason – The penalty for treason is death • Louis was sent to the guillotine on Jan. 21, 1793 Marie Antoinette Louis’ Austrian wife The French people blamed her for France’s financial problems She was convicted of treason and sentenced to be guillotined She was executed on Oct. 16, 1793