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2 Chapter 2 The High Tide of Imperialism: Africa and Asia in an Era of Western Dominance The Spread of Colonial Rule The Myth of European Superiority Social Darwinism Prior to Columbus, center of the world trade network was Persian Gulf and central Asia • Carried not just commercial goods but also ideas and inventions: compass, printing, Arabic numerals, and gunpowder European Age of Exploration in the sixteenth century The Advent of Western Imperialism • Asia and Africa sources of raw materials and new markets The Impact of the Industrial Revolution • Imperialism – efforts of capitalist states in the West to seize markets, cheap raw materials, and lucrative sources for investment of capital in countries beyond Western civilization • J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study, 1902 – Imperialism a direct consequence of modern industrial economy – Industrialized states produced more goods than they could absorb in the domestic market and had to export • Balance of power politics • 1885, colonialism and national survival related • Tactics • • • • Before 1800, establish a few footholds After 1800, direct control to protect from rivals Economic interests secondary to security concerns or national prestige By 1900, virtually all societies of Africa and Asia under full colonial control or at virtual collapse The Colonial System Direct and Indirect Rule Indirect rule – cooperation with local political elites whose loyalty earned by economic rewards or granting of authority and status in the colony Direct rule – local elites removed and replaced by new officials from the mother country The Philosophy of Colonialism • Social Darwinism and “survival of the fittest” The White Man’s Burden • Assist backward people • Rudyard Kipling • Christian missionaries • Western democracy Assimilation and Association • French colonial theory vacillates • • Assimilation – transform colonial societies in the Western image Association – collaborating with local elites while leaving local traditions alone • British reject assimilation, generally treating subjects as culturally and racially distinctive • Replicate own hierarchical system India Under the British Raj Mughals Muslims from Central Asia • Governed a land primarily Hindu Europeans arrive in early 16th century • Enclaves on the coast to carry on trade Mughals in decline by 1800 • British begin consolidating control East India Company • Privately run company to administer British Asian territories • “The Great Game” • Arab traders • Internal trade – merchant castes India Under British Rule, 1805-1931 The Nature of British Rule Government Attention given to education • Train the children of elites for government bureaucracy • Introduction of the British civil service exam Outlaw sati Attempted to end brigandage (thuggee) Introduced railroads, the telegraph, and postal service Agricultural reforms Zamindar system (local landlords collect taxes and turn them over to the government) • Took advantage of new authority and increased taxes • Rural unrest results in legislation protecting farmers from eviction and unreasonable rent increases Manufacturing Limited forms of industrialization • First textile mill, 1856 • Lack of local capital and advantages to British imports • British textiles put out of work many of those in the Indian textile industry Indian psyche Few efforts to introduce democratic institutions and values British arrogance and contempt for native tradition created anger • Resentment of the high caste The Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia The Imposition of Colonial Rule End of Napoleonic Wars, Britain agreed with Dutch to abandon East Indies in return for free hand in Malay peninsula • Stamford Raffles founded Singapore, 1819 Britain started trade with Burma, within a few decades placed it under the colonial administration of India French worried about British presence and intervened into the affairs of Vietnam and gained control • Seizure of Cambodia and Laos Thailand • Kings introduce Western learning and maintain relations with the West • Left alone as a buffer between the French and British possessions, 1896 United States in Southeast Asia Eastern Samoa and Hawaiian Islands colonized • Hawaii annexed in 1898 Spanish American War • Acquired Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippine Islands Philippines • Turned into an American colony to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Japanese • Jumping off point for Chinese trade • Emiliano Aguinaldo leads guerrilla forces against U.S. troops in a demand for independence Colonial Southeast Asia, c. 1850 Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia Economic profit was the immediate and primary aim Colonial administration Indirect rule by the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies • Dutch East India Company (VOC) • Priyayi, the local landed aristocracy, maintained law and order • Abandoned indirect rule for direct rule with plantation agriculture and oil in Sumatra Britain used direct rule in commercial centers of Singapore, Malacca, and island of Penang In Burma, Britain abolished the monarchy and established direct rule through India French in Indochina used direct and indirect rule All powers slow to implement democratic institutions • First legislative councils and assemblies composed almost exclusively of European residents in the colonies Rural Policies Vast majority of colonial people continued to farm the land Colonial policy emphasized cash crops for export Plantation agriculture • Peasants recruited, become wage laborers • Shanghaied laborers • High taxes to pay administrative costs or improvements were heavy burdens to poor peasants Growth of population • Sanitation • Medical treatment Benefits of colonial rule • Economic infrastructure • Entrepreneurial class created Profits repatriated to mother country Displaced peasants move to cities with seasonal employment Empire Building in Africa Portuguese down the west African coast and to the Indian Ocean Slave trade Little European penetration into the interior Africa before the Europeans Obstacle of the Sahara Desert Prosperous trading societies • Caravan trade across the Sahara • Religion and culture of Islam Eastern coast trade • Port cities • Arab traders • Swahili culture -- combination of elements of Arab and indigenous cultures Africa in 1914 The Growing European Presence in West Africa Slave trade in decline by the beginning of the 19th century Dutch end in 1795 and Danes in 1803 Great Britain and the United States end the international slave trade • Britain applies pressure from other states to end slave trade By 1880s slavery abolished in all major countries of the world After the end of the slave trade, the Europeans became interested in West African products of peanuts, timber, hides, and palm oil Britain and France begin establishing settlements on west coast Gold Coast (Ghana) and Sierra Leone (plantations for freed slaves) United States establishes Liberia for freed slaves French occupied area around Senegal River near Cape Verde Imperialist Shadow over the Nile Desire to shorten the route around the Cape of Good Hope Construction of the Suez Canal, 1854-1869 Construction led by Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1854 Muhammad Ali attempted to bring reforms on the British model Dependence on foreign financial support When an army revolt occurred in 1881 protesting foreign influence, Britain set up an informal protectorate Algeria French seized Algeria in 1830 French established a protectorate on neighboring Tunisia in 1881 The Scramble for Africa At the beginning of the 1880s most of Africa still independent By 1900, the British had consolidated authority over the Nile valley and seized additional territories in East Africa French retaliated by advancing east from Senegal into the central Sahara; also occupied Madagascar and coastal territories in West and Central Africa The Motives “Missionary factor” Three Cs – Christianity, Commerce, Civilization Technology and firearms to defeat Africans The Berlin Conference Conference in 1884 to avert war and reduce tensions among European nations competing for Africa France and Britain – Fashoda, 1898 Bantus, Boers and British in South Africa South Africa Dutch settlers from the Cape Colony began to migrate east to lands inhabited by local Khoisan and Bantu • Internecine warfare among Bantus depopulated the region Zulus under Shaka Great Trek northeastward, forming Orange Free State and Transvaal • Boer migration provoked by British seizure of the Cape • British government more sympathetic to the rights of the African population than were the Boers Boer War, 1899-1902 War between Britain and Transvaal that was backed by Orange Free State Gold and diamonds in Transvaal Only whites could vote in the self-governing colony The Struggle for Southern Africa Colonialism in Africa Indirect Rule Nigeria • Local authority assigned to native chiefs with British district officers served as intermediaries with the central administration • Does not severely disrupt local customs and institutions • All major decisions made by British administrators while native authorities served as the means of enforcement • Perpetuated the autocratic system Kenya Large European population -- fertile farmlands reserved for European settlement Reserve lands set aside for Africans Europeans sought self-government • Britain unwilling, agreed only to establish separate government for European and African populations South Africa High percentage of European settlers • Divided between British and Afrikaners Independent Union of South Africa created, 1910 • Combined Cape Colony and Natal with the two Boer republics • Representative government only for European population • African reserves were subordinated directly to the crown -- Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana), and Swaziland Lands north of the Zambezi River divided into territories of Northern and Southern Rhodesia under British control Southern Rhodesia became a crown colony Direct Rule French system of centralized administration • Appointed governor-general aided by a bureaucracy • At provincial level commissioners assigned to deal with local administrators -- had to speak French Assimilate Africans into French culture rather than preserve native traditions Africans could run for office and serve in the French National Assembly European colonial policy after World War I Colonial administration extended into outlying areas where represented by a district official and defended by native army under European command Improve social services, “sacred trust” More Africans in colonial administration Women in Colonial Africa Sexual relationships changed • End to forced marriages, body mutilation, and polygamy • Western education for women Unfavorable consequences Matrilineal system suffered Women restricted to traditional farming methods British tradition of female subordination Discussion Questions Define and discuss with examples the myth of European superiority. Using examples, compare and contrast Western colonialism in Southeast Asia and in Africa during the nineteenth century. Identify and examine the positive and negative consequences of British rule in India. Compare and contrast “indirect rule” with “direct rule, and examine which individuals or groups among the native populations might benefit the most and which might benefit the least from the two imperial approaches.