Download The American Revolution 1776

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
The American Revolution
1776 - 1783
The Early Years
p.162 - 168
The Opposing Sides
 After
the colonies declared
independence form England in July
1776, the war for freedom was
 Both sides expected the war for
independence to be short.
 Most Patriots believed the British would
give up after losing 1 or 2 battles.
The Opposing Sides
At first glance the British had and
overwhelming advantage in the war.
 They had the strongest navy in the
world; an experienced, well trained
army, and the wealth of a worldwide
 Britain also had a much larger
population than the United States.
The Opposing Sides
The colonists suffered serious
 They lacked regular army and a strong
 Americans soldiers also lacked military
experience, and weapons and ammunition
were in short supply.
 Volunteer soldiers only fought for a short
time before returning home.
The Opposing Sides
 Not
all Americans supported the
struggle for independence.
 Some people were neutral, taking
neither side.
 The Quakers would not participate
in the war because they opposed
all armed conflict.
The Loyalists
Loyalist – colonists who opposed the war for
independence. Also known as Tories.
Some people changed side during the war.
Loyalists were strongest in the Carolinas and Georgia
and weakest in New England.
Some remained loyalists because they were members of
the Anglican Church, headed by the British king.
Some depended on the British for jobs.
Others could not understand what all the commotion was
African Americans in the
 At
the start of the war, the British
appealed to enslaved Africans by
announcing that enslaved people
who fight on the British side would be
 Many men answered the call.
Patriot Advantages
Patriots were fighting on their own land
Fought with great determination to protect it.
The British relied on mercenaries, hired soldiers, to fight.
The Americans called the mercenaries Hessians,
after the region in Germany where most of them
Patriots had a much greater stake in winning the
war than the hired soldiers.
Greatest advantage was George Washington.
Raising an Army
After throwing off the rule of the British
Parliament, they were unwilling to transfer
power to their own Continental Congress.
 In some ways the American Revolutions
was really 13 separate wars, with each
state pursing its own interest.
 As a result, Congress experienced difficulty
enlisting soldiers and raising money to fight
the war.
Raising an Army
At first, soldiers signed up for 1 year of army
service, but Washington pleaded for longer.
The Continental Congress offered
enlistments for 3 years or for the length of
the war.
 Most soldiers still only signed up for 1 year.
Women also fought. Margaret Corbin, Molly
Pitcher and Deborah Sampson all helped the
soldiers or fought in the war.
Fighting in New York
 Britain
realized they would
need more troops to end the
war quickly.
 In
the summer of 1776, Britain sent
32,000 troops to New York.
 The
British commander was
General William Howe.
Defeat on Long Island
The two armies clashed at the Battle of Long
Island in late August.
The Continental Army suffered great defeat with
only 20,000 troops.
Nathan Hale proved himself a hero by spying on
the British troops. He was discovered and
After the defeat, Washington retreated to
Manhattan and then later across New Jersey to
A Low Point
the winter of 1776 – 1777, the
Continental Army had dwindled.
 By
Some soldiers completed their terms of
service and went home
 Others ran away.
 Washington
knew if soldiers were not
recruited soon, the fight would be
Patriot Gains
 Washington
pleaded with the
Continental Congress for more
troops. He even asked for
enlistment of free African
 White men in the south felt
uncomfortable giving slaves guns
in fear of revolts.
African Americans Join the Fight
Some states ignored the ban and enlisted
African Americans.
Rhode Island raised all African American
regiments in 1778.
In the end, all states enlisted African Americans
except South Carolina.
Its estimated 5,000 African Americans joined the
African Americans fought because they believed
in the Patriot cause, they needed money, or
fought to earn their freedom.
American Victories in New Jersey
Armies usually called a halt to wars during
the winter and the British did not expect to
 Washington saw a chance to catch the
British off guard by attacking on Christmas
night, 1776.
 The Continental Army was stationed
across the Delaware River from the British
camp in New Jersey.
American Victories in New Jersey
Washington took 2,400 troops across the
icy river and surprised the enemy at
Trenton the next day. The Americans
captured over 900 Hessians.
 The British sent reinforcements under Lord
Charles Cornwallis, but Washington
marched his troops to Princeton where
they drove away the British.
A British Plan for Victory
The British planned to take Albany, New York and
gain control of the Hudson River which would
separate New England from the Middle Colonies.
The plan involved a 3-prong attack:
General Burgoyne would lead 8,000 troops south from
Lieutenant Colonel Barry St. Leger would move east from
Lake Ontario.
General Howe would move north from New York City.
The 3 would meet at Albany and destroy the Patriots.
The British Capture Philadelphia
Howe planned to take the American
capital, Philadelphia, before marching to
 In September 1777, Howe’s troops
captured Philadelphia, forcing the
Continental Congress to flee.
 Howe postponed the move north to Albany
and decided to spend the winter in
Patriots Slow the British
Problems delayed the British plans to take Albany.
Troops led by Benedict Arnold halted St. Leger’s
advance in New York.
General Burgoyne’s army was not making much
progress toward Albany either.
In need of food and supplies, Burgoyne sent
800 troops and Native Americans to capture
the American supply base at Bennington,
Patriots Slow the British
 The
British troops’ brightly colored
uniforms made the soldiers easy
targets in the woods.
 The Green Mountain Boys attacked
and defeated them
 Burgoyne retreated in October to the
town of Saratoga, New York.
The Battle of Saratoga
At Saratoga, Burgoyne expected British
forces from the west and south to join him,
but they had not arrived.
 The Americans stopped St. Leger’s army;
Howe’s forces were still in Philadelphia;
American General Horatio Gates blocked
his path to the south.
 Burgoyne found himself surrounded by an
army 3 times as large as his own.
The Battle of Saratoga
British made one last desperate attack on
October 7, 1777, but the Americans held.
 The British were trapped and had no food.
 On October 17, 1777 Burgoyne surrendered.
 Over 5,700 soldiers handed over their
weapons while Patriots played, “Yankee
 British 3 prong plan to take the Hudson River
had failed.