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Know the key events that contributed to the start of
World War I
Understand the underlying international pressures
and rising nationalism that contributed to the
outbreak of World War I
Triple Alliance
Alliance 1894
1st German Naval
Law – 1898
Defensive Treaty
2nd German Naval
Law – 1900
Triple Entente
3rd German Naval
Law – 1912
1st Balkan War: 1912
2nd Balkan War: 1913
Game – Thoughts?
• Austria – Hungarian Strategy? Secret Instructions
• German Strategy? Secret Instructions
• Russian Strategy? Secret Instructions
• French Strategy? Secret Instructions
• British Strategy? Secret Instructions
Timeline to Crisis
June 28, 1914
Archduke Ferdinand
assassinated in
Sarajevo by member
of Black Hand
July 5, 1914
Kaiser William II promises
German support for
Austria against Serbia
July 23, 1914
• Austro-Hungarian government waits
three weeks following the
assassination before issuing its formal
ultimatum to Serbia.
• Seizing the opportunity to settle a
long-standing score with Serbia,
Austria-Hungry transmits its
ultimatum to the Serbian
• Austria-Hungary assumes that the
Serbian government was conspiring
with the Black Hand in the
Ferdinand’s assassination.
• Austria-Hungry demands a reply in
2 days from Serbia.
• Serbia responds on 25 July, 1914
Franz Joseph I
Austrian Ultimatum (July 23, 1914)
To suppress any publication which incites to hatred and contempt of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
and the general tendency of which is directed against its territorial integrity (Freedom of Press)
To dissolve immediately the Black Hand; to confiscate all its means of propaganda, and to proceed in
the same manner against other societies and their branches in Serbia which engage in propaganda
against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. (Freedom to Assemble)
To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Serbia, both as regards the teaching body and also
as regards the methods of instruction, everything that serves, or might serve, to foment the propaganda
against Austria-Hungary (Freedom of Education)
To remove military service, and from the administration in general, all officers and functionaries guilty
of propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy whose names and deeds the Austro-Hungarian
Government reserve to themselves the right of communicating to the Royal Government. (Serbian
Government Employees)
To accept the collaboration in Serbia of representatives of the Austro-Hungarian Government for the
suppression of the subversive movement directed against the territorial integrity of the Monarchy
(Austrians in Serbian Government)
To take judicial proceedings against accessories to the plot of the 28th of June who are on Serbian
territory; delegates of the Austro-Hungarian Government will take part in the investigation relating
thereto (Austrians in Serbian Judicial System)
Sir Edward Grey (British Foreign Secretary) commented that he had "never before seen
one State present another independent State such a document so formidable of character."
Serbian Response (July 25, 1914)
Serbia will introduce a provision into the press law providing for the most severe punishment
of incitement to hatred and contempt of the Austrian Hungry Monarchy.
The Serbian government possesses no proof ... that the Narodna Odbrana and other similar
societies have committed up to the present any criminal act of this nature ... Nevertheless,
Serbia will dissolve the Narodna Obrana (Black Hand).
Serbia will eliminate without delay from public instruction everything that serves or might
serve to foment the propaganda against Austria-Hungry, whenever the Austrian-Hungarian
government furnishes Serbia with facts and proofs of propaganda.
Serbia agrees to remove from the military service all such persons as the judicial inquiry may
have proved to be guilty of acts directed against the integrity of the territory of AustriaHungry.
The Serbian government does not clearly grasp the meaning or the scope of the demand ... that
Serbia shall undertake to accept the collaboration of the representatives of Austria-Hungry,
but they declare that they will admit such collaboration as agrees with the principle of
international law, with criminal procedure, and with good neighbourly relations.
As regards the participation in this inquiry, which Serbia intends to hold, of AustroHungarian agents. Serbia cannot accept such an arrangement, as it would be a
violation of our Constitution.
Timeline to Crisis
July 28, 1914
AH declared war on
Serbia. Germany
sends "Halt in
Belgrade" telegram to
Austria-Hungry, but
they ignore it.
July 29, 1914
Russia mobilizes its
army in support of
August 1, 1914
August 3, 1914
war on
Germany declares war on France.
Launches it’s Schlieffen Plan.
In France, Joffre warned
that France must
mobilize, but the French
Cabinet delayed until
Aug. 1, the same day
that Germany mobilized
its army
Joseph Joffre
Herbert Asquith
France and Great Britain declares war on
Germany and Austria-Hungry on August 4th
August 3rd, 1914
 Was World War I inevitable?
 Was there a solution to the crisis? If so what?
 What caused World War I? Was the assassination the cause
or merely the spark that ignited an already dangerous
 Did heightened nationalism play a part?
 What does World War I tell of the dangers of an arms race?
Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead
Know the key events that contributed to the start of
World War I
Understand the underlying international pressures
and rising nationalism that contributed to the
outbreak of World War I