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Transcript
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Unit 5
Reason and the French Revolution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
French Revolution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Political Causes
• King was divine right monarch
with
unlimited powers
• King selected ministers because of noble
birth or favoritism
–Government was frequently corrupt or
inefficient
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Political Causes
• King censored speech and
press
• Enemies of state were imprisoned without
charge, bail, or trial
• People were denied voice in government
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Political Causes—
Incompetent Gov’t.
• Louis XVI--incompetent
– Dull mind
– Weak character
– No leadership qualities
• Marie Antoinette-- unpopular
–Austrian Hapsburg
–Vain, frivolous person
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Social Causes3 Estates
• First
–Clergy
–Approximately 1%
• Second
–Nobility
–Approximately 1%
Social Causes3 Estates
Reason and the
French
Revolution
• Third
• Bourgeoisie
–Merchants/Manufacturers
–Bankers
–Attorneys
• City workers
• Peasants
• 97%
Reason and the
French
Revolution
•
•
•
•
Social CausesEstates
st
nd
1 &2
Owned most land
Collected feudal dues (banalites)
Were exempt from most taxes
Held best government and military
positions
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Social CausesEstates
st
nd
1 &2
• Received special treatment before law
• Did include some poor parish priests who
lived no better than peasants
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Social Causesrd
3 Estate
• Third Estate was the
unprivileged class
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Social Causes—
• Bourgeoisie was most powerful
continental Europe
rd
3 Estate
group in
– Wealthy
– Well-educated
– Ambitious
– Resented arrogance of nobles
• They sought role in shaping governmental policies
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Social Causes—
rd
3 Estate
• Many bourgeoisie became French
revolutionary leaders
• They wanted to end
mercantilism,
preferring laissez-faire
–Ideas presented by Scottish economist Adam
Smith
–Wealth of Nations (1776)
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Economic Causes—
Spending
• Predecessors’ extravagances hurt
• Predecessors’ wars hurt
• Louis worsened situation
– Spent heavily to aid American colonists against
Britain
– Maintained lavish court at
Versailles
– Refused to tax privileged classes
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Economic Causes—
Ignored Advice
• He ignored Turgot’s and Necker’s advice to:
–End court extravagances
–Tax the nobility
• Louis heeded his nobles and dismissed these
ministers
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Economic Causes-Taxes
• Peasants
– To government
• Taille (land tax)
• Corvee (forced labor)
• Gabelle (tax on salt purchases)
– To Church--tithe
– To lords—banalites
• Taxes were 1/2 of their income
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Economic Causes-Taxes
• Bourgeoisie
–Provincial tariffs on trade
–Guild restrictions on manufacturing
–Government mercantilistic regulations
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Ideological Causes— French
Philosophes
• Challenged traditional thinking
and
institutions
• Ideas reached many people, despite
censorship
• Convinced people how bad their
conditions
were
• Proposed course of action
• Had vision of better world
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Ideological Causes—Other
“Revolutions”
• England--Puritan Revolution and Glorious
Revolution
–Geographically close
–Many English had taken
refuge
in
France
–French philosophes praised English
parliamentary government
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Ideological Causes—Other
“Revolutions”
• American “Revolution”
–Lafayette and other French involved
–Franklin and Jefferson were popular
American envoys to France
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Estates-General
Summoned
• 1789
• To solve financial crisis
• Had not been called since 1614
years)
• Admitted king alone could not
France’s financial problems
(175
solve
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Undemocratic EstatesGeneral
• Representation
–1st and 2nd Estates each had 300
–3rd Estate had 600
• Voting
–Each estate had 1 vote
–First 2 estates could outvote 3rd
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Undemocratic EstatesGeneral
• Cahiers
–Lists of grievances from members of 3rd
Estate
–While pledging loyalty to
king, they
demanded major reforms
Reason and the
French
Revolution
National Assembly—
1789
• 3rd Estate led at first by 2 members of
privileged classes
–Abbe Sieyes
–Count Mirabeau
Reason and the
French
Revolution
National Assembly—
1789
• Demanded that E-G be changed into a National
Assembly
– Each member (not estate) would have 1 vote
– This would gain 3rd Estate (joined by some liberal
clergy and nobility) majority
– Basic reforms could be enacted
Reason and the
French
Revolution
National Assembly—
1789
• Louis rejected proposed National Assembly
• 3rd Estate:
–Declared themselves to be the
National
Assembly
–In Tennis Court Oath, pledged
to write
constitution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
National Assembly—
1789
• Paris mobs supported these actions with
demonstrations
• Louis consented to the National Assembly
Reason and the
French
Revolution
The Bastille
• Destroyed July 14, 1789
• Parisians heard rumors
that king was sending
troops to disperse
Assembly
• In reaction, Paris mobs
destroyed Bastille
Reason and the
French
Revolution
The Bastille
• Peasants attacked nobles’ castles, destroyed
records of feudal dues
–Expressed their support for Assembly
–Warned king and nobility not to resist
reforms
Reason and the
French
Revolution
National Assembly
(1789-1791)
• Controlled by bourgeoisie
• Abolished:
– Payment of feudal dues
– Payment of Church tithes
– Tax exemptions of privileged
– All class distinctions
– Guild restrictions on trade and manufacturing
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Declaration of the Rights
of Man
• Men are born free and equal with rights to:
–Liberty
–Property
–Security
–Resistance to oppression
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Declaration of the Rights
of Man
• All persons are guaranteed
–Equality before the law
–Freedom from unlawful arrest
–Freedom of speech, press, and religion
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Declaration of the Rights
of Man
• All citizens are entitled to voice in making
nation’s laws
• Modeled after
–English Bill of Rights
–American Declaration of
Independence
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Assembly’s Financial
Measures
• Seized Church lands (1/5 of France)
• Church lands used to back
assignats,
new paper currency
• Church lands were broken up and sold to
peasants
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Assembly’s
Religious Measures
• Deprived Church of its special position
• Abolished Church tithes
• Guaranteed religious freedom to all
groups
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Assembly’s
Religious Measures
• Subjected Church to state control by Civil
Constitution of the Clergy
– Church in France was national church
independent of pope
– Catholic clergy in France were paid government
officials to be elected by the people
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Assembly’s Political
Measures
• Constitution of 1791
– Limited monarchy
– Hereditary king had:
• Limited executive powers
• Temporary veto over legislation
– Elected Legislative Assembly passed laws
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Assembly’s Political
Measures
• Constitution of 1791
–Members of Assembly had to be property
owners elected by
taxpaying citizens
–This would allow bourgeoisie to hold power
in new government
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Those Favoring Republic
• Girondists
–Moderates, representing some of
bourgeoisie
–Wanted middle-class republic like US
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Those Favoring Republic
• Jacobins
– Radicals, representing city workers
• These workers paid no taxes
• Had no voice in government based on
Constitution of 1791
– Opposed king and bourgeoisie
– Wanted republic dominated by poorer people
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Those Favoring
Old Regime
• Louis XVI
–Resented loss of power
–Conspired with foreign monarchs against
Revolution
–In 1791 tried to flee with his wife, but was
caught and returned
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Those Favoring
Old Regime
• Devout Catholics led by clergy
• French nobles
–Upset over loss of privileges
–Emigres urged foreign monarchs to invade
France and restore Old Regime
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Those Favoring
Old Regime
• Foreign monarchs
– Feared French Revolution would inspire revolt
among their people
• Prussia
• Austria
– In 1792 ordered their armies to invade France to
stop Revolution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
End of Monarchy
• Foreign armies moved on Paris
• French mobs rioted, accusing king of communicating
with enemy
• Legislature deposed king and called for election of
National Convention
– Govern France
– Draw up new, more democratic,
constitution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
National Convention
• 1792-1795
• First French Republic
–National Convention proclaimed France a
republic
–The Convention tried Louis
on charges of sentenced him to death
Reason and the
French
Revolution
National Convention
• Louis’ execution alarmed other European
monarchs
• Soon France was invaded by:
–Britain
–Holland
–Spain
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Committee of Public
Safety
• Fearful of foreign invasion
Jacobins
seized Convention
• Centralized power into Committee of Public
Safety
–Led first by Danton
–Then by Robespierre
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Committee of Public
Safety
• Created draft to protect Revolution against foreign
enemies
• Conscripted armies drove out invading forces
• Created planned economy and price control system
to end financial crisis
• Spurred nationalistic feelings by creating public
enemies
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Reign of Terror
• Created by Committee of Public Safety to
protect revolution from domestic enemies
• Brutally crushed all domestic opposition
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Reign of Terror
• Arrested all persons suspected of treason, no
matter how farfetched the suspicion
• Sentenced thousands to guillotine, no matter
how
meager the evidence
• 40,000 executed, 300,000 imprisoned.
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Reign of Terror
• Eventually horrors of Reign of Terror turned
French against Jacobins
• Brought end to terror
• In 1794, Danton and Robespierre were
guillotined
• Moderates regained control of Convention
Reason and the
French
Revolution
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reforms by Convention
Ended imprisonment for debt
Abolished slavery in colonies
Adopted metric system
Planned national education system
Prohibited primogeniture
Created republican constitution
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Directory
• 5-man ruling committee created by
Constitution
• Incompetent and corrupt
• Lasted only 4 years
• Replaced by Napoleon
• Revolution began as move to democracy, ended
in military dictatorship
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Significance of French
Revolution
• Democratic ideals
–Liberty—freedom for all
–Equality—equal treatment for all
–Fraternity—brotherhood of all
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Significance of French
Revolution
• Emphasis on nationalism
–War became nation’s concern
–The Marseillaise became
national anthem
–Bastille Day made national holiday
–State-controlled education to preserve nation’s
ideals
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Napoleon
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Why Napoleon?
• His character
–Brilliant mind
–Magnetic personality
(charismatic)
–Ruthless
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Why Napoleon?
• Military ability
–Educated in French military
academy
–Devised superior combat
tactics
–Inspired his soldiers
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Why Napoleon?
• France’s desire for orderly
government
–People weary of revolution
–Displeased with Directory
–Wanted government that
would safeguard
their gains and be competent and orderly
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Napoleon’s Rise
• Dispersed rioting Paris mobs threatening
National
Convention in 1795
• Became national hero by routing larger
Austrian army
in Italy in 1797
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Napoleon’s Rise
• Napoleon reported exaggerated military
victories in Egypt
• Coup d’etat over Directory (1799)
• Prepared new constitution which kept
republic
• Concentrated power in First Consul
(Napoleon)
Reason and the
French
Revolution
•
•
•
•
Napoleon’s Rise
France at war with Allies
In 1802 war ended favorably
After brief peace, war began
1803-1809 Napoleon had great
–Napoleon lacked sea power to
Britain
victories
invade
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Napoleon’s Rise
• Napoleon changed republic into empire in
1804
–Crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I
–People overwhelmingly voted
approval
• French Revolution led to undisguised
dictatorship
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Height of
His Power
• Annexed neighboring lands
• Reduced Prussia and Austria to minor states
• Made alliance with only other
continental rival, Russia
• Only serious challenge was Britain
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Continental System
• Berlin and Milan Decrees
– Napoleon closed continent to British trade
• Britain retaliated with Orders in Council
– Barred neutral nations from
France & allies
– Deprived continent of essential
trading with
products
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Continental System
• Both sides hurt
–Interfered with neutral trade (led to War of
1812)
–Britain suffered economically
–Napoleon was harmed by
resentment of
European peoples hurt by his rule
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Continental System
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Russian Opposition
• Tsar Alexander I felt Napoleon
was threat
to Russia
• Russia suffered economically under
Continental System
• In 1812, when tsar resumed trade with
Britain, Napoleon invaded
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Rising Nationalism
• Nations across Napoleon’s empire inspired
by French
Revolution
• Napoleon now faced opposition from
entire nations rather
than just monarchs
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Why Napoleon Fell
• Personal weaknesses
–Lust for land and power was limitless
–Ambition caused him to
overreach
–Became more stubborn and unwilling to
accept advice
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Why Napoleon Fell
• Britain’s opposition
–Viewed Napoleon as symbol of
excesses of
French Revolution
–Wanted no one continental nation to be allpowerful
–Suffered economic hardship because of
economic warfare
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Why Napoleon Fell
• Britain’s control of seas
–Britain’s naval supremacy
–Forced Napoleon to give up his
largest
overseas possession, the Louisiana Territory
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Napoleon’s Downfall
• Peninsular War (1808-1814)
–Britain supported Spain and Portugal in
their nationalistic war
–France lost
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Napoleon’s Downfall
• Invasion of Russia (1812)
–Russia at first refused to
fight,
retreating toward Moscow
–Eventually Napoleon had to retreat
because of an
early, hard winter
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Napoleon’s Downfall
• Wars of Liberation (1813-1814)
–Encouraged by Russian success, Prussia &
Austria
declared war
–Armies of Russia, Prussia, & Austria defeated
Napoleon
• Napoleon abdicated his throne
and was
exiled to Elba
Reason and the
French
Revolution
The Hundred Days
• 1815
• Escaped from Elba
• Returned to France, regaining control for 100
days
• Allies beat him at Waterloo
• Exiled to St. Helena
• Died there in 1821
Reason and the
French
Revolution
•
•
•
•
•
Accomplishments
Exercised powers of
absolutist
Made laws
Decided on war and peace
Censored speech and press
Ordered arbitrary arrest and imprisonment
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Accomplishments
• Utilized secret police
• Provided efficient government
• Furthered the Revolutionary principle of
equality
• Accomplished noteworthy reforms
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Political Reforms
• Centralization of local government
–Placed local governments under national
authority
–Appointed officials
• Today France remains a unitary government
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Political Reforms
• Legion of Honor
–Created to recognize distinguished military
and civilian service to France
–Membership was open to all persons
regardless of social
status
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Legal Reforms
• Code Napoleon
–Equal treatment before law
–Ended serfdom and feudalism
–Guaranteed religious toleration
jury
• Code Napoleon is basis of law in
of world today
and trial by
many parts
Reason and the
French
Revolution
•
•
•
•
Financial Reforms
Collected taxes fairly and efficiently
Paid governmental debts promptly
Created Bank of France
Pleased bourgeoisie and encouraged business
enterprise
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Public Works Reforms
• Built roads, bridges, and canals
• Dredged harbors
• Beautified Paris
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Religious Reforms
• Concordate of 1801
– State paid clergy’s salaries
– Church surrendered claims to lands taken
during Revolution
– Bishops chosen by State but confirmed by
pope
• Later annexed Papal States and was
excommunicated
Reason and the
French
Revolution
•
•
•
•
•
Educational Reforms
Controlled all education
Built new schools
Improved standards
Made schools uniform
Prepared courses of study to extol Napoleon
and nationalism
• Progressed at expense of Church
schools
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Influence
on Europe
• Map changes
–Abolition of Austrian- dominated HRE
–Reduction in number of German states,
thus aiding German unification
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Influence
on Europe
• Legacy of revolution
–Spread French Revolutionary doctrines
–Ended Old Regime abuses of feudalism and
serfdom
–Introduced Code Napoleon
–Encouraged state-controlled education
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Influence
on Europe
• Legacy of war and empire
– Growth of militarism
– Intolerant nationalism among conquered peoples
– Widespread destruction
– Poor European economy
– Heavy tax burden on conquered
– Was first modern dictator
Reason and the
French
Revolution
Unit 5
Reason and the French Revolution