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Law Enforcement Organization
and Administration
Chapter 1
Modern Day Law
Enforcement can be
traced to the
Metropolitan Police
in London, England,
created in 1829.
Industrial Revolution
• Industrial Revolution in England caused a
great surge of an uneducated and poorly
trained population to migrate to London.
• This surge led to an increase in crime, chaos
and poverty.
• These problems led to a proliferation of
private and special police forces that served
the needs of the diverse interest groups
needing protection.
• British Home
Secretary Sir Robert
Peel lobbied British
Parliament to from a
organized police
force under
government control.
Metropolitan Police Act
• Outlined the first duty manual to prevent
crime and protect order.
• Established a police constabulary modeled
into a para-military organization with a
military style rank structure.
• Metropolitan Police
model was a success
and gradually extended
to all parts of England
and was exported to
• Key component was
local control
Traditional Management 1750 - 1900
• Concept of local control
– Each county or city having control of the local
police or sheriffs department
• Department had Centralized Administration
– Control from top
– Limited decision making at the operational level
Pendleton Act
– Attempt to limit political influence by the creation
of a Civil Service to hire and promote personnel
– Placed federal employees under a merit system in
an attempt to reduce political interference
Scientific Management Model
1900 - Present
• Scientific Management – emphasis on
efficiency, orderliness, and output.
– Division of labor
– Unity of Command and centralization of decision
– One-way authority
– Narrow span of control
O. W. Wilson
• Police Management Principals
– Professional police department
divorced from politics
– Rigorous police personnel
selection and training process
– Use of latest technology
innovations available for law
O. W. Wilson
• Opposed civil service because it hampered
police chiefs from selecting most qualified
personnel in selection and promotion
• Organized police around
– Planning
– Activating
– Controlling
William H. Parker
• LAPD Chief 1950 -1966
– Implemented Scientific
Management in the LAPD
– Instituted probationary periods
for new officers
– Developed a method of operation
– Implemented a research and
development division
– LAPD became model for hiring
standards, recruitment, training,
and technology
• Participative Management
– The Police Executive is a team leader
– Manager is first among equals
– People oriented humanistic approach
• Manager defines limits in which decisions can be made
• Manager and the group jointly make decisions with
limits defined by organizational constraints
Behavioral Management
1945 to Present
Systems Management
1960 to Present
Management By Objectives
• Goal Orientated Philosophy and Attitude
• Focus on results, less concerned for method
• Program evaluation and review techniques
– Manner of determining goal achievement
• Planned programmed budgets
– Better identification of expenditures
– Tighter control of unit activities
• Organizational development
– Process of building a sound organizational structure
Community Policing
• Incorporates problem-solving policing, which
attempts to solve specific crime problems in
the community
Proactive Police Management
1980 to Present
Proactive Police Management
Focus Of The Text
Objective of policing is crime prevention
Strong commitment to community
Modern Bureaucracy
Full Service Police Department with multispecialist teams
Full use of modern communication
Modern budgeting and accounting systems
Crisis Management Planning
Consultative Management
Data Driven Department with full use of
• Emphasis on Operational Utility
• Instituted crime control
planning program known
as COMPSTAT (computer
statistics) while he was
New York City Police
Lee P. Brown
• Instituted
Neighborhood Oriented
Police model in
Houston, Texas.
• Oriented police officer
from enforcer of
neighborhood beats to
problem solver.