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Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity Race: Myth and Reality • • • • • The Reality of Human Variety The Myth of Pure Races The Myth of a Fixed Number of Races The Myth of Racial Superiority The Myth Continues © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Module 31 Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups █ █ Racial group: █ Group set apart from others because of obvious physical differences Ethnic group: █ Group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin and/or distinctive cultural patterns Module 31 Minority Groups █ Minority group: Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives – Properties of minority groups include: • Unequal treatment • Distinguishing cultural characteristics • Involuntary membership • Solidarity • In-group marriage Module 31 Minority Groups █ Minority group does not necessarily imply a smaller number. – South African prior to the end of apartheid • Black South Africans were 79% of the total population and yet they were the minority group • White South Africans were 9.6% of the population and yet they were the majority group Module 31 Race █ Research shows that race is not a meaningful way of differentiating people – Racial group refers to these minorities – Social construction of race: Society socially constructs which differences are important Historical Efforts to Define Race • Linnaeus: 4 human races • Blumenbach: 5 human races • Cuvier: 3 human races • Hunter: 7 human races • Burke: 63 human races • Pickering: 11 human races Historical Efforts to Define Race • Very: 2 species; 3 in races each • Haeckel: 36 human races • Huxley: 4 human races • Topinard: 19 races under 3 headings • Desmoulins: 16 species • Deniker: 17 races and 30 types Module 31 Race █ Racial formation: Sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed – Native Americans – “One-drop rule” Module 31 Race █ Recognition of Multiple Identities – In 1990, Du Bois predicted “the color line” foremost problem of 20th century • Immigration from Latin America shows fluid nature of race formation • Biracial society being replaced by triracial – Stereotypes: Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences with the group Module 31 Prejudice Attitude █ Prejudice: Negative attitude toward an entire category of people – Ethnocentrism: Tendency to assume one’s culture and way of life are superior to others – Racism: Belief that one race is supreme and others are innately inferior Module 31 Discriminatory Behavior █ Discrimination: Denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias – Discrimination persists even for educated and qualified minority members Glass ceiling: invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity Merton’s Typology of Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudiced Attitude? Discriminatory behavior? Unprejudiced nondiscriminator No No Unprejudiced discriminator No Yes Prejudiced Nondiscriminator Yes No Prejudiced Discriminator Yes Yes Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction • • • • • • • Genocide Colonialism Segregation Acculturation Pluralism Assimilation Amalgamation Genocide • Annihilation of an entire nation or people. • In the 20th century Hitler led the Nazi extermination of 12 million people in the Holocaust. • In the early 1990s ethnic Serbs attempted to eliminate Muslims from parts of Bosnia. Genocide • In 1994 genocide took pace in Rwanda when Hutus slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Tutsis. • Currently in the Darfur region of Sudan, the Sudanese government, using Arab janaweed militias, its air force, and organized starvation, is systematically killing the black Sudanese population. Colonialism • A racial or ethnic group from one society takes over and dominates the racial or ethnic group(s) of another society. • Examples: European invasion of North America, British occupation of India, Dutch presence in South Africa before the end of apartheid Segregation • Physical separation of two groups in residence, workplace, and social functions. – de jure ( by law) – de facto (in fact) Expulsion or Population Transfer • Occurs when a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave the country or to live only in designated areas of the country. • The 1830 Indian Removal Act called for the relocation of eastern tribes to land west of the Mississippi River. Acculturation • Refers to adopting the culture of a group different from the one in which a person was originally raised. • Acculturation may involve learning the dominant language and adopting new values and behaviors. Pluralism • Refers to a state in which racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinctness but respect each other and have equal access to social resources. • In Switzerland, four ethnic groups—French, Italians, Germans, and Swiss Germans— maintain their distinct cultural heritage and group identity in an atmosphere of mutual respect and social equality. Assimilation • The process by which formerly distinct and separate groups merge and become integrated as one. – Secondary assimilation: integration in public areas and social institutions, such as neighborhoods, schools, workplaces, and government. – Primary assimilation integration in personal, associations, as with friends, family, and spouses. Amalgamation • When different ethnic or racial groups become married or pair-bonded and produce children. • Since 1960: – Number of black-white married couples has increased fivefold – Number of Asian-white married couples has increased tenfold – Number of Hispanics married to nonHispanics has tripled Ethnic Groups • People often confuse the terms race and ethnic group • Race Refers to Biological Characteristics • Ethnicity Refers to Cultural Characteristics – Common Ancestry – Cultural Heritage – Nations of Origin © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Minority and Dominant Groups • Minority Group - People Singled Out for Unequal Treatment • Minority Group Not Necessarily Numerical Minority • Emergence of Minority Groups – Expansion of political boundaries – Migration © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Minority and Dominant Groups • Dominant Group - Group with Most… – Power – Privileges – Highest Social Status • Dominant Group Does the Discriminating © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Constructing Racial-Ethnic Identity • Sense of Ethnicity – Relative Size – Power – Appearance – Discrimination • Ethnic Work and the Melting Pot © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Prejudice and Discrimination • Learning Prejudice – Prejudice vs. Discrimination – Learning from Association – Far-Reaching Nature of Prejudice – Internalizing Dominant Norms • Lighter/Darker Skin • Ethnic Maps © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Individual and Institutional Discrimination • Home Mortgages – African Americans and Latinos were 60 percent more likely to be rejected • Health Care – Discrimination does not have to be deliberate – Researchers do not know why race–ethnicity is a factor in medical decisions © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Prejudice • Psychological Perspectives – Frustration and Scapegoats – The Authoritarian Personality • Sociological Perspectives – Functionalism © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Prejudice – Conflict Theory • Keep Workers Insecure • Exploit Racial-Ethnic Divisions – Symbolic Interactionism • How Labels Create Prejudice • Labels and Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States: Europeans Americans • White Anglo Saxon Protestants (WASPs) held deep prejudices against other whites • Nation’s Founders Included Only Those from England • Other “White” Europeans Inferior • Naturalization Act of 1790: only white immigrants could apply for citizenship © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Race-Ethnicity of the U.S. Population © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. U.S. RacialEthnic Groups © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Distribution of Dominant and Minority Groups © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Geographical Origins of U.S. Latinos © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Where U.S. Latinos Live © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States: Asian-Americans • Background of Discrimination • Diversity • Reasons for Success – Family life – Educational achievement – Assimilation into mainstream culture © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Countries of Origin of Asian Americans © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States: Native Americans • Diversity of Groups • From Treaties to Genocide and Population Transfer • The Invisible Minority and SelfDetermination • Pan-Indianism © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.