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Transcript
World History: Connection to Today
Chapter 26
New Global Patterns
(1800–1914)
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
World History: Connection to Today
Chapter 26: New Global Patterns (1800–1914)
Section 1: Japan Modernizes
Section 2: Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Section 3: Self-Rule for Canada, Australia,
and New Zealand
Section 4: Economic Imperialism in
Latin America
Section 5: Impact of Imperialism
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
1
Japan Modernizes
• How did discontent in Japanese society and
the opening of Japan lead to the Meiji
restoration?
• What were the main reforms under the
Meiji?
• How did Japanese military strength
promote imperialism?
1
Events Leading Up to the Meiji Restoration
By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan.
The government responded by trying to revive old ways.
The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forced
unequal treaties on Japan.
Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a
strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure
deepened the social and economic unrest.
Discontented daimyo and samurai overthrew the shogun and
“restored” the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which
lasted from 1868 to 1912, was a major turning point in Japanese
history.
1
Reforms Under the Meiji
The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a
completely new political and social system and to build a modern
industrial economy.
GOVERNMENT
Adopted the German model of
government
Set forth the principle that all
people were equal under the
law
Established a western-style
bureaucracy
Used western technology to
strengthen the military
Ended the special privilege of
samurai
ECONOMIC
REFORMS
Encouraged Japan’s business
class to adopt western
methods
Built factories and sold them
to wealthy business families,
known as zaibatsu
SOCIAL CHANGE
Ended legal distinctions
between classes
Set up schools and a
university
Hired westerners to teach
the new generation modern
technology
1
Why Was Japan Able to Modernize So Rapidly?
• Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a
common culture and language that gave it a strong sense of
identity.
• Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set Japan
on the road to development.
• The Japanese had experience learning from foreign nations,
such as China.
• The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule.
1
Japanese Imperialism
As with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs
fed its imperialist desires.
In 1894,Japan defeated China in
the Sino-Japanese War, gaining
treaty ports in China and control
over the island of Taiwan.
In 1905, Japan defeated Russia in
the Russo-Japanese War, gaining
control of Korea as well as rights in
parts of Manchuria.
In 1910, Japan annexed Korea,
absorbing the kingdom into the
Japanese empire and ruling it
for 35 years.
1
Section 1 Assessment
Wealthy business families in Japan were known as
daimyo.
shogun.
samurai.
zaibatsu.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being
a heterogeneous society.
a homogeneous society.
c) a military society.
an isolated society.
a)
b)
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d)
1
Section 1 Assessment
Wealthy business families in Japan were known as
daimyo.
shogun.
samurai.
zaibatsu.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being
a heterogeneous society.
a homogeneous society.
c) a military society.
an isolated society.
a)
b)
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d)
2
Southeast Asia and the Pacific
• What impact did European
colonization have on Southeast
Asia?
• How did Siam maintain its
independence?
• How did imperialism spread to the
Philippines and other Pacific islands?
2
Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900
2
Colonization of Southeast Asia
In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and
Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up
Southeast Asia.
By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast
Asia. They:
•
introduced modern technology
•
expanded commerce and industry
•
set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest
rubber
•
brought in new crops of corn and cassava
•
built harbors and railroads
These changes benefited Europeans far more than the
people of Southeast Asia.
2
How Did Siam Maintain Its Independence?
• King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam on the
road to modernization.
• Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but
escaped becoming a European colony.
• Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Siam a
buffer, or neutral zone, between them.
• In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam its
independence.
2
Imperial Powers in the Pacific
In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in
the islands of the Pacific.
In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from
Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed
to a triple protectorate over Samoa.
From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for
power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.
At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines
was placed under American control. The United States
promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future.
2
Section 2 Assessment
Changes introduced by Europeans in Southeast Asia
primarily benefited Southeast Asians.
primarily benefited the Europeans.
c) benefited both Southeast Asians and Europeans equally.
were insignificant.
In 1898, the United States annexed
a) Samoa.
b) the Philippines.
c) Hawaii.
d) Burma.
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a)
b)
d)
2
Section 2 Assessment
Changes introduced by Europeans in Southeast Asia
primarily benefited Southeast Asians.
primarily benefited the Europeans.
c) benefited both Southeast Asians and Europeans equally.
were insignificant.
In 1898, the United States annexed
a) Samoa.
b) the Philippines.
c) Hawaii.
d) Burma.
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a)
b)
d)
3
Self-Rule for Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
• How did Canada achieve self-rule?
• How did European settlement
change the course of Australian
history?
• How did New Zealand emerge as an
independent nation?
3
Canada, 1867–1914
3
How Did Canada Achieve Self-Rule?
Canada’s first European rulers were French.
When France lost Canada to Britain in 1763, thousands of French-speaking
settlers remained.
In 1791 Britain passed the Canada Act, which created two provinces:
English-speaking Upper Canada and French-speaking Lower Canada.
During the 1800s, unrest grew in both colonies.
In 1839, the Durham Report called for the two Canadas to be reunited and
given control over their own affairs.
In 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union, a major step toward selfgovernment.
As Canada expanded westward, John Macdonald and George Étienne
Cartier urged confederation, or unification, of all Canada’s provinces.
Britain passed the British North America Act of 1867, creating the Dominion
of Canada. It united four provinces into a dominion, or self-governing
nation. Six additional provinces later joined the union.
3
Geography of Australia and New Zealand
3
Europeans in Australia
•
In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. At that time, it was
too distant to attract European settlers.
•
Australia had long been inhabited by indigenous people, later called
Aborigines. When white settlers arrived, the Aborigines suffered disastrously.
•
In 1788, Britain made Australia into a penal colony.
•
In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to emigrate to Australia.
As the newcomers took over more and more land, they thrust aside or killed
the Aborigines.
•
In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom.
•
By the late 1800s, Australia had won a place in a growing world economy.
3
New Zealand
In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for
Britain.
New Zealand pioneered
in several areas of
democratic reform.
Missionaries arrived to convert the local people,
In 1893, it became the
first nation to give
suffrage to women.
In 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand.
Later, it was in the
forefront of other social
reforms.
the Maoris, to Christianity.
White New Zealanders won independence.
By the 1870s, Maori resistance crumbled. Many
Maoris died in the struggle.
Colonists took over Maori land and engaged in
fierce wars with the Maoris.
3
Section 3 Assessment
Under the British North America Act of 1867, Canada
became a confederation.
b) became a dominion.
c) was divided into Upper Canada and Lower Canada.
d) was colonized by the British.
The first European settlers in Australia were
a) Dutch.
British.
French.
Americans.
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a)
b)
c)
d)
3
Section 3 Assessment
Under the British North America Act of 1867, Canada
became a confederation.
b) became a dominion.
c) was divided into Upper Canada and Lower Canada.
d) was colonized by the British.
The first European settlers in Australia were
a) Dutch.
British.
French.
Americans.
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a)
b)
c)
d)
4
Economic Imperialism in Latin America
• What political and economic
problems faced new Latin American
nations?
• How did Mexico struggle for
stability?
• How did the United States influence
4
Political Problems
During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued
by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships.
• Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as
independence barely changed the existing social and
political hierarchy.
• With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations
were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area.
4
The Economics of Dependence
Economic dependence occurs when less-developed nations
export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations
and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological
know-how. The relationship is unequal because the more
developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and
terms of trade.
Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America
economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. After
independence, this pattern changed very little. The region
remained as economically dependent as before.
4
The Influence of the United States
In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that
the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any
European powers.
In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine. Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police
power” in the Western Hemisphere.
•
In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened
militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and
investments.
In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against
Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal.
•
To people in Latin America, the canal was an example of
“Yankee Imperialism.”
4
Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917
4
Section 4 Assessment
Which of the following nations was under United States influence between 1898
and 1917?
a)
Venezuela
b)
Colombia
c)
Mexico
d)
Honduras
Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the United States claimed “international police
power” in
a)
the
Western Hemisphere.
b)
North
America only.
c)
the Pacific Ocean.
d)
Eastern Europe.
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4
Section 4 Assessment
Which of the following nations was under United States influence between 1898
and 1917?
a)
Venezuela
b)
Colombia
c)
Mexico
d)
Honduras
Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the United States claimed “international police
power” in
a)
the
Western Hemisphere.
b)
North
America only.
c)
the Pacific Ocean.
d)
Eastern Europe.
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5
Impact of Imperialism
• How did imperialism lead to new
economic patterns?
• What was the cultural impact of
imperialism?
• How did political tensions develop as
the result of imperialism?
5
New Economic Patterns
• A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United
States, Britain, France, and Germany.
• Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced
the old barter system.
• Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world
further disrupted traditional economies.
• Local economies that had once been self-sufficient
became dependent on the industrial powers.
5
Cultural Impact
•
As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people
to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas,
government, technology, and culture.
•
Many nonwesterners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept
a belief in western superiority.
•
The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations
sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures.
•
Western culture spread around the world.
5
New Political Tensions
• By the early 1900s, westerneducated elites in Africa and Asia
were organizing nationalist
movements to end colonial rule.
• The competition for imperial power
was fueling tensions among western
nations.
5
Section 5 Assessment
What effect did mass-produced goods have on traditional economies?
They made traditional economies more competitive.
They disrupted traditional economies.
They improved traditional economies.
d) They helped to diversify traditional economies.
a)
b)
c)
As westerners conquered other lands, they
encouraged native peoples to hold onto their own beliefs.
pressed native peoples to accept “modern” ways.
easily assimilated with native peoples.
took on native beliefs and gave up their own.
a)
b)
c)
d)
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5
Section 5 Assessment
What effect did mass-produced goods have on traditional economies?
They made traditional economies more competitive.
They disrupted traditional economies.
They improved traditional economies.
They helped to diversify traditional economies.
a)
b)
c)
d)
As westerners conquered other lands, they
encouraged native peoples to hold onto their own beliefs.
pressed native peoples to accept “modern” ways.
easily assimilated with native peoples.
took on native beliefs and gave up their own.
a)
b)
c)
d)
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