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World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era Chapter 13 New Global Patterns 1800–1914 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era Chapter 13: New Global Patterns 1800–1914 Section 1: Japan Modernizes Section 2: Southeast Asia and the Pacific Section 3: Self-Rule Canada, Australia, and New Zealand Section 4: Economic Imperialism in Latin America Section 5: Impact of Imperialism Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. 1 Japan Modernizes • How did discontent in Japanese society and the opening of Japan lead to the Meiji restoration? • What were the main reforms under the Meiji? • How did Japanese military strength promote imperialism? 1 Events Leading Up to the Meiji Restoration By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan. The government responded by trying to revive old ways. The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forced unequal treaties on Japan. Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest. Discontented daimyo and samurai overthrew the shogun and “restored” the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which lasted from 1868 to 1912, was a major turning point in Japanese history. 1 Reforms Under the Meiji The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a completely new political and social system and to build a modern industrial economy. GOVERNMENT Adopted the German model of government Set forth the principle that all people were equal under the law Established a western-style bureaucracy Used western technology to strengthen the military Ended the special privilege of samurai ECONOMIC REFORMS Encouraged Japan’s business class to adopt western methods Built factories and sold them to wealthy business families, known as zaibatsu SOCIAL CHANGE Ended legal distinctions between classes Set up schools and a university Hired westerners to teach the new generation modern technology 1 Why Was Japan Able to Modernize So Rapidly? • Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a common culture and language that gave it a strong sense of identity. • Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development. • The Japanese had experience learning from foreign nations, such as China. • The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule. 1 Japanese Imperialism As with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs fed its imperialist desires. In 1894,Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War, gaining treaty ports in China and control over the island of Taiwan. In 1905, Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, gaining control of Korea as well as rights in parts of Manchuria. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea, absorbing the kingdom into the Japanese empire and ruling it for 35 years. 2 Southeast Asia and the Pacific • What impact did European colonization have on Southeast Asia? • How did Siam maintain its independence? • How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and other Pacific islands? 2 Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900 2 Colonization of Southeast Asia In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia. By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They: • introduced modern technology • expanded commerce and industry • set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber • brought in new crops of corn and cassava • built harbors and railroads These changes benefited Europeans far more than the people of Southeast Asia. 2 How Did Siam Maintain Its Independence? • King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam on the road to modernization. • Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but escaped becoming a European colony. • Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Siam a buffer, or neutral zone, between them. • In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam its independence. 2 Imperial Powers in the Pacific In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific. In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa. From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii. At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was placed under American control. The United States promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future. 3 Self-Rule for Canada, Australia, and New Zealand • How did Canada achieve self-rule? • How did European settlement change the course of Australian history? • How did New Zealand emerge as an independent nation? 3 Canada, 1867–1914 3 How Did Canada Achieve Self-Rule? Canada’s first European rulers were French. When France lost Canada to Britain in 1763, thousands of French-speaking settlers remained. In 1791, Britain passed the Canada Act, which created two provinces: English-speaking Upper Canada and French-speaking Lower Canada. During the 1800s, unrest grew in both colonies. In 1839, the Durham Report called for the two Canadas to be reunited and given control over their own affairs. In 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union, a major step toward selfgovernment. As Canada expanded westward, John Macdonald and George Étienne Cartier urged confederation, or unification, of all Canada’s provinces. Britain passed the British North America Act of 1867, creating the Dominion of Canada. It united four provinces into a dominion, or self-governing nation. Six additional provinces later joined the union. 3 Geography of Australia and New Zealand 3 Europeans in Australia • In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. At that time, it was too distant to attract European settlers. • Australia had long been inhabited by indigenous people, later called Aborigines. When white settlers arrived, the Aborigines suffered disastrously. • In 1788, Britain made Australia into a penal colony. • In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to emigrate to Australia. As the newcomers took over more and more land, they thrust aside or killed the Aborigines. • In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom. • By the late 1800s, Australia had won a place in a growing world economy. 3 New Zealand In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain. New Zealand pioneered in several areas of democratic reform. Missionaries arrived to convert the local people, In 1893, it became the first nation to give suffrage to women. In 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand. Later, it was in the forefront of other social reforms. the Maoris, to Christianity. White New Zealanders won independence. By the 1870s, Maori resistance crumbled. Many Maoris died in the struggle. Colonists took over Maori land and engaged in fierce wars with the Maoris. 4 Economic Imperialism in Latin America • What political and economic problems faced new Latin American nations? • How did Mexico struggle for stability? • How did the United States influence Latin America? 4 Political Problems During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships. • Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. • With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area. 4 The Economics of Dependence Economic dependence occurs when less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how. The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade. Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. After independence, this pattern changed very little. The region remained as economically dependent as before. 4 The Influence of the United States In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers. In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere. • In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments. In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal. • To people in Latin America, the canal was an example of “Yankee Imperialism.” 4 Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917 5 Impact of Imperialism • How did imperialism lead to new economic patterns? • What was the cultural impact of imperialism? • How did political tensions develop as the result of imperialism? 5 New Economic Patterns • A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United States, Britain, France, and Germany. • Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced the old barter system. • Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world further disrupted traditional economies. • Local economies that had once been self-sufficient became dependent on the industrial powers. 5 Cultural Impact • As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas, government, technology, and culture. • Many nonwesterners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept a belief in western superiority. • The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures. • Western culture spread around the world. 5 New Political Tensions • By the early 1900s, western-educated elites in Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule. • The competition for imperial power was fueling tensions among western nations.