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World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era
Chapter 13
New Global Patterns
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era
Chapter 13: New Global Patterns 1800–1914
Section 1: Japan Modernizes
Section 2: Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Section 3: Self-Rule Canada, Australia, and
New Zealand
Section 4: Economic Imperialism in
Latin America
Section 5: Impact of Imperialism
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Japan Modernizes
• How did discontent in Japanese society and
the opening of Japan lead to the Meiji
• What were the main reforms under the Meiji?
• How did Japanese military strength promote
Events Leading Up to the Meiji Restoration
By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan.
The government responded by trying to revive old ways.
The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forced
unequal treaties on Japan.
Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a
strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure
deepened the social and economic unrest.
Discontented daimyo and samurai overthrew the shogun and
“restored” the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which
lasted from 1868 to 1912, was a major turning point in Japanese
Reforms Under the Meiji
The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a
completely new political and social system and to build a modern
industrial economy.
Adopted the German model of
Set forth the principle that all
people were equal under the
Established a western-style
Used western technology to
strengthen the military
Ended the special privilege of
Encouraged Japan’s business
class to adopt western
Built factories and sold them
to wealthy business families,
known as zaibatsu
Ended legal distinctions
between classes
Set up schools and a
Hired westerners to teach
the new generation modern
Why Was Japan Able to Modernize So Rapidly?
• Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a
common culture and language that gave it a strong
sense of identity.
• Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set
Japan on the road to development.
• The Japanese had experience learning from foreign
nations, such as China.
• The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule.
Japanese Imperialism
As with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs
fed its imperialist desires.
In 1894,Japan defeated China in
the Sino-Japanese War, gaining
treaty ports in China and control
over the island of Taiwan.
In 1905, Japan defeated Russia in
the Russo-Japanese War, gaining
control of Korea as well as rights in
parts of Manchuria.
In 1910, Japan annexed Korea,
absorbing the kingdom into the
Japanese empire and ruling it
for 35 years.
Southeast Asia and the Pacific
• What impact did European colonization have
on Southeast Asia?
• How did Siam maintain its independence?
• How did imperialism spread to the
Philippines and other Pacific islands?
Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900
Colonization of Southeast Asia
In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and
Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up
Southeast Asia.
By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of
Southeast Asia. They:
introduced modern technology
expanded commerce and industry
set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest
brought in new crops of corn and cassava
built harbors and railroads
These changes benefited Europeans far more than
the people of Southeast Asia.
How Did Siam Maintain Its Independence?
• King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam
on the road to modernization.
• Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but
escaped becoming a European colony.
• Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making
Siam a buffer, or neutral zone, between them.
• In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam
its independence.
Imperial Powers in the Pacific
In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in
the islands of the Pacific.
In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from
Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed
to a triple protectorate over Samoa.
From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for
power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.
At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines
was placed under American control. The United States
promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future.
Self-Rule for Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
• How did Canada achieve self-rule?
• How did European settlement change the
course of Australian history?
• How did New Zealand emerge as an
independent nation?
Canada, 1867–1914
How Did Canada Achieve Self-Rule?
Canada’s first European rulers were French.
When France lost Canada to Britain in 1763, thousands of French-speaking
settlers remained.
In 1791, Britain passed the Canada Act, which created two provinces:
English-speaking Upper Canada and French-speaking Lower Canada.
During the 1800s, unrest grew in both colonies.
In 1839, the Durham Report called for the two Canadas to be reunited and
given control over their own affairs.
In 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union, a major step toward selfgovernment.
As Canada expanded westward, John Macdonald and George Étienne
Cartier urged confederation, or unification, of all Canada’s provinces.
Britain passed the British North America Act of 1867, creating the Dominion
of Canada. It united four provinces into a dominion, or self-governing
nation. Six additional provinces later joined the union.
Geography of Australia and New Zealand
Europeans in Australia
In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. At that time,
it was too distant to attract European settlers.
Australia had long been inhabited by indigenous people, later called
Aborigines. When white settlers arrived, the Aborigines suffered
In 1788, Britain made Australia into a penal colony.
In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to emigrate to
Australia. As the newcomers took over more and more land, they
thrust aside or killed the Aborigines.
In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom.
By the late 1800s, Australia had won a place in a growing world
New Zealand
In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for
New Zealand pioneered
in several areas of
democratic reform.
Missionaries arrived to convert the local people,
In 1893, it became the
first nation to give
suffrage to women.
In 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand.
Later, it was in the
forefront of other social
the Maoris, to Christianity.
White New Zealanders won independence.
By the 1870s, Maori resistance crumbled. Many
Maoris died in the struggle.
Colonists took over Maori land and engaged in
fierce wars with the Maoris.
Economic Imperialism in Latin America
• What political and economic problems faced
new Latin American nations?
• How did Mexico struggle for stability?
• How did the United States influence Latin
Political Problems
During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued
by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships.
• Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as
independence barely changed the existing social and
political hierarchy.
• With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new
nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a
local area.
The Economics of Dependence
Economic dependence occurs when less-developed
nations export raw materials and commodities to
industrial nations and import manufactured goods,
capital, and technological know-how. The relationship is
unequal because the more developed — and wealthier
nation — can control prices and terms of trade.
Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin
America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal.
After independence, this pattern changed very little. The
region remained as economically dependent as before.
The Influence of the United States
In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated
that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by
any European powers.
In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine. Under this policy, the United States claimed
“international police power” in the Western Hemisphere.
In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened
militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and
In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt
against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal.
To people in Latin America, the canal was an example of
“Yankee Imperialism.”
Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917
Impact of Imperialism
• How did imperialism lead to new economic
• What was the cultural impact of imperialism?
• How did political tensions develop as the result
of imperialism?
New Economic Patterns
• A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the
United States, Britain, France, and Germany.
• Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that
replaced the old barter system.
• Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world
further disrupted traditional economies.
• Local economies that had once been self-sufficient
became dependent on the industrial powers.
Cultural Impact
As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject
people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western
ideas, government, technology, and culture.
Many nonwesterners, especially in conquered lands, came to
accept a belief in western superiority.
The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations
sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures.
Western culture spread around the world.
New Political Tensions
• By the early 1900s, western-educated elites
in Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist
movements to end colonial rule.
• The competition for imperial power was
fueling tensions among western nations.