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Transcript
Supranationalism
and Devolution
Supranationalism



Separate entity composed of three or more states
that forge and association and from an
administrative structure for mutual benefit and in
pursuit of shared goals
20th century has witnessed establishment of
numerous supranational associations in political,
economic, cultural, and military spheres
States have formed over 60 major supranational
organizations
Beginnings


Post WWI Woodrow Wilson proposes
international organization including all the states
of the world (League of Nations)
After WWII United Nations created


Currently has 191 member states
Led to many subsidiaries:



FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
UNESCO (United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization)
WHO (World Health Organization)
Supranational Organizations

Alliances, trade associations, and
organizations designed to represent the
interests of multiple states.



Economic organizations - OPEC, EC,
COMECON, NAFTA
Political organizations - UN, OAS,
Military organizations - NATO, ANZUS,
Warsaw Pact
The European
Union
Who?
What?
When?
Where?
Why?
WHO?
Member States of the EU

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
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

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

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Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland


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Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Candidate Countries

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Croatia
Macedonia
Turkey
Other European Countries

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Albania
Andorra
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Georgia
Iceland
Liechtenstein

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Moldova
Monaco
Montenegro
Norway
Russia
San Marino
Serbia
Switzerland
Ukraine
Vatican City State
What?
 European
Union-an economic
cooperation
When?
of Europe – 1945
 European Steel and Coal
Community – 1959
 European Community – 1965
 European Union - 1993
 Council
WHERE?
Current Map of EU Members
Why?
 To
promote development
within the member states
through economic cooperation
Devolution
Devolution


Movement of power from the central
government to regional governments within
the state
Forces arise from several sources:



Ethnocultural
Economic
spatial
Ethnocultural


Nations within a state that define
themselves as distinct ethnically,
linguistically, or religiously
Especially evident in Eastern Europe


Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia succumbed to
devolutionary pressures
Leads to conflicts in places like Sudan and Sri
Lanka
Economic

Can also produce
devolutionary
pressures

Examples:



Catalonia, Spain:
contains 6% of Spain’s
territory, 17% of its
population, but produces
25% of exports and 40%
of industrial exports
Italy: pressures to split
north (wealthy) and
south (less wealthy)
Sardinia
Spatial


Distance, remoteness, and marginal
locations are allies of devolution
Regions most likely to seek are those far
from the capital


Many separated by water, desert, or mountains
Many islands are subject to these forces

Corsica (France), Sardinia, Taiwan, Singapore
(Malyasia), Zanzibar (Tanzania), Jolo (Phil.),
Puerto Rico