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Bell Ringer
• Music (First 5 Minutes)
• Questions
1. Have you ever heard traditional Indian music before?
2. There are a variety of instruments used in this music
style. Do any of them sound familiar to you?
3. Is there anything you like about the music? Why?
Traditional Musical Instruments - India
Chordophones (string)
• Plucked strings
• Bowed strings
Aerophones (wind)
• Single reed
• Double reed
• Flute
• Bagpipes
• Free reed
• Free reed and bellow
• Brass
Membranophones (drums)
• Hand drums
• Hand frame drums
• Stick and hand drums
• Stick drums
Idiophones (non-drum percussion)
• Melodic
What are the origins, beliefs, and practices of
• Hinduism, which began in India, drew from Aryan beliefs
and Dravidian religious practices.
• Evidence for Hindu beliefs came from the Vedas, an
ancient collection of hymns and ceremonies passed
down orally.
• Early Hindus believed that the duty of the individual was
to achieve oneness with Brahman, the network of
ultimate reality.
• Later, Hinduism developed humanlike gods and the
concept of reincarnation in order to become more
accessible to a growing number of practitioners.
• Video Clip
• My Life, My Religion: Hinduism (First 6 mins)
• Brahma, the Creator
• god who created the
universe and set it in
• He is traditionally shown
with 4 heads.
• Vishnu, the Preserver
• Preserver of the
universe. When
humankind needs help,
he appears on Earth as
an avatar
• He is traditionally shown
as blue with 4 arms
often riding on the
mythical bird Garuda.
• Shiva, the Destroyer
• god of both destruction
and creation.
• His destructive powers
remove the world's
• Parvati
• goddess also named
Durga, who is the wife of
• She is fierce and
powerful. She is shown
with many arms. These
are for fighting against
• Rama
• The 6th avatar
(reincarnation) of Vishnu
and the hero of the epic,
• He defeated the
powerful demon,
Ravana. Worshipped for
his bravery and
• Krishna
• The 7th and most
important avatar
(reincarnation) of
• One of the most loved
Hindu gods, often show
with dark blue skin and
playing a flute.
• Ganesh
• The elephant-headed
son of Shiva and Parvati.
• He is wise, thoughtful
and jolly.
Textbook Reading & Vocabulary
• Social Class in Ancient
• The Four Varnas
• The Caste System
• Central Ideas in
• Varnas
• Caste System
• Hinduism
• Yoga
• Reincarnation
• Process
• Early Practice
• Karma
• Principles of Hinduism
• Dharma
India’s Caste System
• The caste system has dominated the structure of society in
India and other parts of South Asia for thousands of years. The
caste system is believed to have originated with the Aryans,
who settled on the Indian subcontinent after 1500 B.C.
• The Aryans believed that an ideal society was defined by four
large social groups, or varnas: Priests, Warriors, Commoners,
and Servants. Originally, the varnas were defined primarily by a
person’s occupation and wealth.
• Over time, a person’s social group came to be determined by
birth rather than his or her economic position. The caste
system became a strict social group into which a person is
India’s Caste System
• Much of what we know today about the early caste
system in India comes from the book of Hindu laws known
as the Manu-smriti, or The Laws of Manu.
• The legal code includes 12 chapters of both social and
religious teachings.
• In particular, it defines the laws and moral obligations for
each caste, including those concerning marriage, diet,
and religious purification.
India’s Caste System
• Below the varnas are castes with no designation.
Traditionally, people from these groups were thought to be
impure. As a result, they were called Untouchable,
because their touch should be avoided.
• As the caste system became more and more rooted in
heredity and religion, it became nearly impossible for an
individual to move from a lower group to a higher group.
• Each varna is metaphorically associated with a part of the
body. When all the parts work together, society functions
• Currently, the constitution of India makes discrimination
based on caste illegal.
Caste System
Caste System
Caste System
Caste System
Caste System
Not listed are the Untouchables. Those identified as Untouchables were
not even allowed into the caste system. They were ostracized from