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Bell Ringer • Music (First 5 Minutes) • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYLgVHjP7cw • Questions 1. Have you ever heard traditional Indian music before? 2. There are a variety of instruments used in this music style. Do any of them sound familiar to you? 3. Is there anything you like about the music? Why? Traditional Musical Instruments - India Chordophones (string) • Plucked strings • Bowed strings Aerophones (wind) • Single reed • Double reed • Flute • Bagpipes • Free reed • Free reed and bellow • Brass Membranophones (drums) • Hand drums • Hand frame drums • Stick and hand drums • Stick drums Idiophones (non-drum percussion) • Melodic HINDUISM What are the origins, beliefs, and practices of Hinduism? • Hinduism, which began in India, drew from Aryan beliefs and Dravidian religious practices. • Evidence for Hindu beliefs came from the Vedas, an ancient collection of hymns and ceremonies passed down orally. • Early Hindus believed that the duty of the individual was to achieve oneness with Brahman, the network of ultimate reality. • Later, Hinduism developed humanlike gods and the concept of reincarnation in order to become more accessible to a growing number of practitioners. Introduction • Video Clip • My Life, My Religion: Hinduism (First 6 mins) • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXTNKcXrEXI Deities • Brahma, the Creator • god who created the universe and set it in motion. • He is traditionally shown with 4 heads. Deities • Vishnu, the Preserver • Preserver of the universe. When humankind needs help, he appears on Earth as an avatar (reincarnation). • He is traditionally shown as blue with 4 arms often riding on the mythical bird Garuda. Deities • Shiva, the Destroyer • god of both destruction and creation. • His destructive powers remove the world's impurities. Deities • Parvati • goddess also named Durga, who is the wife of Shiva. • She is fierce and powerful. She is shown with many arms. These are for fighting against demons. Deities • Rama • The 6th avatar (reincarnation) of Vishnu and the hero of the epic, Ramayana. • He defeated the powerful demon, Ravana. Worshipped for his bravery and goodness. Deities • Krishna • The 7th and most important avatar (reincarnation) of Vishnu. • One of the most loved Hindu gods, often show with dark blue skin and playing a flute. Deities • Ganesh • The elephant-headed son of Shiva and Parvati. • He is wise, thoughtful and jolly. Textbook Reading & Vocabulary • Social Class in Ancient India • The Four Varnas • The Caste System • Central Ideas in Hinduism • Varnas • Caste System • Hinduism • Yoga • Reincarnation • Process • Early Practice • Karma • Principles of Hinduism • Dharma India’s Caste System • The caste system has dominated the structure of society in India and other parts of South Asia for thousands of years. The caste system is believed to have originated with the Aryans, who settled on the Indian subcontinent after 1500 B.C. • The Aryans believed that an ideal society was defined by four large social groups, or varnas: Priests, Warriors, Commoners, and Servants. Originally, the varnas were defined primarily by a person’s occupation and wealth. • Over time, a person’s social group came to be determined by birth rather than his or her economic position. The caste system became a strict social group into which a person is born. India’s Caste System • Much of what we know today about the early caste system in India comes from the book of Hindu laws known as the Manu-smriti, or The Laws of Manu. • The legal code includes 12 chapters of both social and religious teachings. • In particular, it defines the laws and moral obligations for each caste, including those concerning marriage, diet, and religious purification. India’s Caste System • Below the varnas are castes with no designation. Traditionally, people from these groups were thought to be impure. As a result, they were called Untouchable, because their touch should be avoided. • As the caste system became more and more rooted in heredity and religion, it became nearly impossible for an individual to move from a lower group to a higher group. • Each varna is metaphorically associated with a part of the body. When all the parts work together, society functions well. • Currently, the constitution of India makes discrimination based on caste illegal. Caste System Caste System Caste System Caste System Caste System Not listed are the Untouchables. Those identified as Untouchables were not even allowed into the caste system. They were ostracized from society.