* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
The Meaning of Marriage Different Types of Marriages Defining Marriage Defining the Family Functions of Marriages and Families Contemporary View • The history of marriage includes three general types to choosing a mate or partner. • marriage by capture, marriage by arrangement and free-choice selection. Marriage by Capture • Marriage by capture has typically occurred in patriarchal societies where women were considered property. • Patriarchal societies are an institution in which both power and authority are vested in the hands of the males, with the male wielding the greatest power. Marriage by Arrangement • The most common method of mate selection has been by arrangement. The parents, often with the aid of certain relatives or professional matchmakers, have chosen the spouse for their child. • Essentially, marriage is seen as of group, rather than individual importance, and economics is often the driving force rather than love between the two individuals. • There are four major reasons that determine mate choice in societies in which marriages are arranged. The first is price. The groom’s family may need to pay for the bride, either in money or labor. • The second consideration is social status. That is, the reputation of the family from which the spouse for one’s child will come is very important. • A third determinant is any continuous marriage arrangement. This refers to a set pattern for mate selection, which is carried on from generation of generation. • The final criteria for mate choice are sororate and levirate arrangements, which refer to second marriages and tend to be based on brideprice obligations. Brideprice • Brideprice—260 societies • Bride service—75 societies • Dowry—24 societies • Gift or exchange—31 societies • No marriage payment—152 societies Dowry • The dowry appears to be an inducement for a man to marry a particular woman and therefore relieve her family of the financial burden of caring for her. Sororate and Levirate • These terms refer to marriage practices designed to control remarriages after the death of the first spouse. In cultures that practice the sororate, a sister replaces a deceased wife. • Under this system(levirate), it is the husband who dies, and his wife must be married to a brother of the deceased man. • The chief reason that the Hindus and Hebrews practiced the levirate was religious and had to do with the importance of having a son in the family. Matchmaking • Matchmakers might act as intermediaries between the families or suggest potential spouses. Free-Choice Mate Selection • Free-mate selection is not the most common type of marriage around the world. In a survey of forty societies Researchers found only five in which completely free mate choice is permitted. • The rule of exogamy declares that a person must marry outside his/her group. • The rule of endogamy declares that a person must marry within his/her group. • A final factor is propinquity (geographical nearness). Defining Marriage • monogamy, in which there are two spouses, the husband and wife. But monogamy is a minority preference among world cultures, exhibited by only 24 percent of the known cultures. • polygamy, the practice of having more than one wife or husband. • polygny, the practice of having two or more wives. • Polandry, the practice of having two or more husbands, is quite rare. Where is does exist, it coexists with polygny. Defining Family • affiliated kin, unrelated individuals who feel and are treated as if they were relatives. • compadres (godparents) are considered family members. • clan, a group of related families • nuclear family is the family type consisting of mother, father, and children. • traditional family is the middle-class nuclear family in which women’s primary roles are wife and mother, and men’s primary roles are husband and bread winner. Functions of Marriages and Families • First it provides a source of intimate relationships. • Second, it acts as a unit of economic cooperation and consumption. • Third, it may produce and socialize children. • Fourth, it assigns social roles and status to individuals. Intimate Relationships • Intimacy is a primary human need. • In our families we generally find our strongest bonds. Economic Cooperation • The family is also a unit of economic cooperation that traditionally divides its lines between male and female roles. Reproduction and Socialization • Teaching the child how to fit into his or her particular culture is one of the family’s most important tasks. • The socialization function, however, is dramatically shifting away from the family. Assignment of Social Role Status • The family of orientation or origin is the family in which we grow up, the family that orients us to the world. • The family of procreation is the family we form through marriage and childbearing. • The family of cohabitation refers to the form through living or cohabitation, whether married or unmarried. Why Live in Families • First families off continuity as a result of emotional attachments, rights, and obligations. • Second families offer close proximity. • Conversation and relationships can be found in one’s house or very near by. • Third, families offer is an abiding familiarity with others. The family knows each other very well, we show sides of our personality to members of our family that is not shown to other people. • Fourth, families provide us with many economic benefits. They offer us economies of scale. Doing jobs such as cooking and laundry are just as easy to do for one as it is for several. Much of the time tasks are shared by family members. Contemporary American Marriages and Families • Cohabitation refers to individuals sharing living arrangements in an intimate relationship. • Marriage is a combination of factors, including the women’s movement, shifting demographics, family policy, and changing values, as they relate to sexuality. • Family the recent model of the family has been considered to be the nuclear family. However the older model is wider and defines the family to include the extended family.