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Flora of the Barwon River (Ring Road to Breakwater) Sponsored by: General Disclaimer This booklet is designed and compiled for the wider community to increase knowledge and awareness of indigenous plants along the Barwon River. Whilst all due care has been taken at the time of publication in providing correct information, we take no responsibility for any errors of content. The information provided relating to the Aboriginal use of plants for food, items or medicinal purposes has been approved by the Wathaurung People. References and Further Research Ecological Vegetation Class (EVC’s) EVC’s are a way of classifying plant communities according to floristics, habit and position. More information about EVC’s can be found on the Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) website. The Ecological Vegetation Classes of the Barwon River are • 55 Plains Grassy Woodland • 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland • 104 Lignum Swamp • 538 Brackish Herbland • 641 Riparian Woodland Corangamite Catchment Management Authority website (CCMA) ‘Barwon through Geelong Management Plan’ • 653 Aquatic Herbland www.ccma.vic.gov.au • 851 Stream Bank Shrubland Victorian Flora website • 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp www.victorianflora.wmcn.org.au Vegetation with no EVC has been allocated as: Department of Sustainability and Environment • Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • 656 Brackish Wetland www.dse.vic.gov.au Costermans L, 1981 ‘Native trees and shrubs of South Eastern Australia’, Reed New Holland. Society of Growing Australia Plants Maroondah Inc, 1991 ‘Flora of Melbourne’, Hyland Publishing Pty Limited, South Melbourne. Cover photo: Near Balyang Sanctuary Back cover photo: Near Balyang Sanctuary Page 2 Page 3 Azolla filiculoides The booklet is organised into sections based on the growth habit of plants. Plants within each section are listed alphabeticall using Botanical name, Common name and Family name. Pacific Azolla Azollaceae Aquatic Plants that require partial or complete submersion in water to survive. Groundcovers and Climbers Groundcovers are low spreading plants that grow across the ground. Climbers sprawl or scramble over and through other plants or objects. Herbs These plants produce fleshy rather than woody stems and are usually up to a metre in height. Grasses and Sedges Grasses and sedges have narrow leaves that arise from the base of the plant to form a tuft. Shrubs EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland Plants with many woody stems arising from near the base of the plant. Shrubs have no distinct trunk. Trees Woody plants over three metres in height with branches developing above a distinct trunk. Page 4 • • • • • • A free floating fern Dies back in cold weather Can be green or red in colour Spores are produced, rather than flowers and fruits Good cover for fish Found in still corners of the Barwon River Flower colour: No flowers Flowering: None Page 5 Aquatic 1.5 cm (h) 2 - 3 cm (w) Phragmites australis Common Reed Triglochin procerum Aquatic Up to 3 m Water Ribbons Poaceae Juncaginaceae EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland EVC 656 Brackish Wetland EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 538 Brackish Herbland EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland EVC 656 Brackish Wetland • Semi-aquatic, fast growing perennial grass • Flower-heads have a fluffy-feathery appearance • Habitat for birds such as the reed warbler, coot and swamphens • • • • Aboriginal use: Leaves were used to weave baskets. Rhizomes were eaten roasted. Flower colour: Green to purplish Aquatic Plant 20 - 50 cm (w) Flowering: All year round Page 6 Located in shallower areas, confined to the edges of the river or wetlands Leaves are fleshy and ribbon-like, erect or floating Flower spikes are erect above the water Black Swans feed on the fleshy shoots and use the leaves for nesting Aboriginal use: The tuberous roots were roasted. Part of the stem was eaten like celery. Flower colour: Greenish Flowering: Most of the year Page 7 Typha domingensis Cumbungi Typhaceae Aquatic 1 - 3 m (h) 10 m (w) EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland EVC 656 Brackish Wetland EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp Bidgee-widgee Rosaceae Ground Cover Prostrate 1 - 4 m (w) EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland • Typha orientalis (Broad-leaf Cumbungi) is another similar species • Distinct velvety-brown flower spike • Good for frog habitat Aboriginal use: Baskets were made from long leaves and fibres. The roots were cleaned, steamed and roasted or eaten raw like potatoes. Flower colour: Greenish Acaena novae-zelandiae • A spreading plant, with burrs covered in hooks that attach to clothing and animal fur • The early settlers used the leaves as a tea substitute • Fruit are sphere-shaped and covered with small red spines Aboriginal use: Bidgee-widgee was used as a medicine to aid digestion. Flower colour: Greenish white Flowering: Oct - Jan Flowering: All year round Page 8 Page 9 Clematis microphylla Small-leaved Clematis Ranunculaceae Climber 4 m (h) Einadia nutans Nodding Saltbush Chenopodiaceae Ground Cover Prostrate 1 - 2 m (w) EVC 175 Grassy Woodland EVC 175 Grassy Woodland • • • • • • Small nodding succulent triangular leaves • Small flowers and tiny red berries are produced during summer months • Fruits are great food for lizards and birds Feathery fruits are dispersed by wind Masses of cream cross-shaped flowers Leaves are dull green 130 mm in length Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants Found around Buckley Falls car park Flower colour: Cream Flowering: July - Nov Page 10 Aboriginal use: Ripe berries were eaten but are poisonous if picked too early. Flower colour: Green Flowering: Dec - March Page 11 Enchylaena tomentosa Ruby Saltbush Chenopodiaceae Tetragonia implexicoma Ground Cover 0.1 - 1 m (h) 1 - 1.5 m (w) Bower Spinach Aizoaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • • Succulent bluish-green cylindrical or linear leaves Small green flowers Berries ripen to orange and red Fruits are food for small lizards and birds such as Silvereyes Ground Cover Prostrate 2 m (w) Red berries are produced and ripen to black Leaves are succulent Small four petalled flowers Earlier voyagers to Australia used this plant to help fight scurvy Aboriginal use: Berries were eaten when ripe and a dye can be made from the berries. Aboriginal use: The leaves and juvenile shoots were cooked and eaten like spinach. Berries were also eaten when ripe. Flower colour: Green Flower colour: Yellow Flowering: Sept - March Page 12 Flowering: Aug - Sept Page 13 Chrysocephalum apiculatum Common Everlasting Asteraceae Herb Prostrate 1 - 2 m (w) Lythrum salicaria Purple Loosestrife Lythraceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • A perennial herb • Silver grey foliage • Flowers attract butterflies • Semi-aquatic perennial herb • Flowers on tall stems • Adapted to most soils Flower colour: Yellow Flowering: Sept - Dec Page 14 Flower colour: Purple Herb 1 m (h) 1 m (w) Flowering: Nov - March Page 15 Senecio quadridentatus Cotton Fireweed Asteraceae Herb 40 - 90 cm (h) 50 - 90 cm (w) EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 538 Brackish Herbland EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp • • • • Fuzzy New Holland Daisy Asteraceae Herb 10 - 30 cm (h) 10 - 30 cm (w) Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland Perennial herb Stems and leaves are covered in wispy hairs, giving a greyish look Small yellow flower-heads attract butterflies Found at upper Buckley Falls car park Flower colour: Green to yellow Vittadinia cuneata Flowering: Oct - March Page 16 • It is difficult to identify the many different species of Vittadinia. The fruit is the main distinguishing feature • A small perennial herb or sub-shrub • Mauve-coloured daisy flowers on leafy stalks • Found on cliff tops around Buckley Falls Flower colour: Mauve to blue Flowering: Sept - Dec Page 17 Wahlenbergia gracilis Sprawling Bluebell Herb 10 - 50 cm (h) Campanulaceae EVC 641 Riparian Woodland Wallaby Grasses Poaceae Grass 20 - 40 cm (h) 20 - 40 cm (w) EVC 55 Plains Grassy Woodland EVC 104 Lignum Swamp EVC 175 Grassy Woodland EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland • Delicate perennial tufted herb • Flowers have five petals • Fruit contains small black seeds Flower colour: Pale blue Austrodanthonia spp. Flowering: Sept - Nov • Leaves are blue-green in colour, can be hairy or hairless, flat or rolled in appearance • Many different species, difficult to distinguish between species. All have fluffy flower heads • Mature flower spikes are creamy white colour Aboriginal use: Seeds were collected and ground to make flour for damper. Flower colour: Brownish Page 18 Flowering: Oct – Dec Page 19 Carex tereticaulis Hollow Sedge or Poong’ort (aboriginal name) Cyperaceae Dianella revoluta Tuft 1 m (h) 1 m (w) Black-anther Flax-lily Liliaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland • Perennial grass-like sedge with rhizomes • Narrow hollow stems, almost triangular in cross section • Found at Balyang Sanctuary • • • • Aboriginal use: The leaves were used by the Wathaurung people for basket weaving and for string. Flower colour: Brown Flowering: Aug - April Flowering stems grow taller than the leaves Produces small dark berries Berries are food for skinks and other lizards Similar but not as common as Dianella brevicaulis which is found along Wal Whiteside Walk Aboriginal use: Berries were eaten when ripe and used to make dyes. The leaves were made into string and baskets. Flower colour: Blue Page 20 Tuft 50 - 70cm (h) 0.3 - 2 m (w) Flowering: Aug - May Page 21 Ficinia nodosa Knobby Club-sedge Cyperaceae EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland • • • • A hardy plant with creeping rhizomes Flowers in sphere shaped clusters near top of the stem Useful for frog habitat Found at Balyang Sanctuary Aboriginal use: The strong, wiry leaves were used for basket weaving. Flower colour: Reddish-brown Juncus spp. Tuft 0.5 - 1 m (h) 0.6 - 2 m (w) Flowering: Most of the year Tuft 0.5 - 2 m (h) 0.3 - 2 m (w) Rushes Juncaceae EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 104 Lignum Swamp EVC 656 Brackish Wetland • • • • • • There are many different species of Juncus Juncus can tolerate moist to wet soils Rhizomatous perennial rush Good plant to help stabilise river banks Useful for frog and bird habitat Found along banks of the Barwon River Aboriginal use: The long, strong cylindrical leaves were used for basket weaving. Flower colour: Browns to yellows Page 22 Flowering: Nov - March Page 23 Lomandra longifolia Spiny-headed Mat Rush Laxmanniaceae EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland • • • • • • Tussock Grass Grass 30 - 80 cm (h) Poaceae EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland Large, tuft-forming perennial Crowded flower spikes Hard brown seed along flower spike Leathery strap-like leaves, toothed ends to the leaves Male and female flowers are on separate spikes Good nesting site for Superb Fairy-wrens and Brown Thornbills Aboriginal use: The leaves were used for basket making. Roots were usually eaten roasted. Seeds were collected and ground to make flour for damper. Flower colour: Yellow to white Poa labillardierei Tuft 0.5 - 1 m (h) 0.5 - 1 m (w) • • • • • Purplish green flowers which turn a pale straw color at maturity Flowers on tall erect stems above the foliage Colours of leaves can vary from green, greyish to blue green Can be seen planted in mass along the river Found around Breakwater Aboriginal use: Seed was collected then ground to make flour. Flower colour: Purplish green Flowering: Oct - Feb Flowering: Sept - Dec Page 24 Page 25 Themeda triandra Kangaroo Grass Poaceae EVC 55 Plains Grassy Woodland • • • • • • A soft erect or sprawling perennial tussock Adapted to many soils, however cannot tolerate overly wet or waterlogged soil Distinctive black awns on purplish brown seed heads Very sensitive to grazing pressure and fertilisers Once covered large areas over much of Australia Found on cliff tops above Bunyip’s Pool, Buckley Falls Aboriginal use: The Wathaurung collected the seeds to make a type of flour cake. Flower colour: Brown Flowering: Sept - Feb Page 26 Bursaria spinosa subsp. spinosa Grass 40 - 75 cm (h) 1 - 1.5 m (w) Sweet Bursaria Pittosporaceae Shrub 3 - 6 m (h) 2 - 3 m (w) EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 175 Grassy Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland • • • • • • Bunches of fragrant flowers at the ends of the branches Clusters of bronze seed capsules follow flowering Occasionally has spines along branches An important shrub for butterflies, including the Eltham Copper Butterfly Leaves contain a chemical that can be useful as a sun block Located at Wal Whiteside Walk Flower colour: White to cream Flowering: Dec - March Page 27 Callistemon sieberi River Bottlebrush Myrtaceae Correa reflexa Shrub 3 - 10 m (h) 2 - 6 m (w) Common Correa Rutaceae EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • • • Leaves are glossy and narrow, around 2-3 cm long New growth is silky and silvery Flowers are arranged in spikes, usually 3-5 cm long, 2-2.5 cm wide Each flower produces a small woody fruit containing hundreds of tiny seeds Fruits are small, cup–shaped capsules clustered along the stem and persist for many years on the plant • Located at Wal Whiteside Walk Aboriginal use: Flowers were soaked in water to make a sweet type of cordial to drink. Flower colour: Pale pink to cream Hairy branches and stems Nectar producing flowers attract many bird species, especially honeyeaters Long tubular flowers hanging between two leaves Another similar species is Correa glabra but it is less hairy and has pale green flowers Aboriginal use: Flowers were picked and sucked for their nectar. Flower colour: Yellow-green/Red and green Flowering: Dec - March Page 28 Shrub 1 - 3 m (h) 1 - 3 m (w) Page 29 Flowering: May - Oct Dodonaea viscosa subsp. spatulata Sticky Hop-bush Sapindaceae Goodenia ovata Shrub 1 - 3 m (h) 1 - 3 m (w) Hop Goodenia Goodeniaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • • • • Ranges in habit from an open dense shrub Fruit is a red to brownish papery three-winged capsule Fruit is more distinctive than the flowers Can be found at the lower car park at Buckley Falls and at Wal Whiteside Walk Flower colour: Red Flowering: Aug - Dec Shrub 2 - 4 m (h) 1.5 - 3 m (w) Bright green ovate leaves with toothed margins Bright yellow flowers have 5 petals; 2 upper and 3 lower Fruit is a narrow cylindrical capsule Grows under a variety of conditions Distinctive sharp, pleasant scent, especially when weather is damp Located at Breakwater Road Aboriginal use: This plant was used to help children sleep on long journeys. Flower colour: Bright yellow Page 30 Flowering: Sept - Feb Page 31 ev iat io n Rd D Aberdeen Geelong Station St Queens Park R yri St Pakington ol rabo Shannon Av e Moo EAST GEELONG Or m on Sc e ni c Rd Barr a d b o ol R Belmont Common nt Rd t t leme Se St gh Hi South Valle y Rd Thornhill Rd Heads Rd Fellmongers Rd BREAKWATER Breakwat Barwon Through Geelong Barwon River Parklands SCALE 1:21340 St e Wa l k w on Page 32 Bar Map Produced using Parks Victoria’s ParkView Mapping System Thursday, 5 November 2009 at 7:52:51 AM Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA94). Map produced by Parks Victoria. This map supersedes all previous editions. Data source acknowledgements: State Digital MapBase, Victorian Flora Site Database & Atlas of Victorian Wildlife © The State of Victoria, Department of Sustainability and Environment The contribution of the Royal Botanical Gardens Melbourne to the database is acknowledged. Spatial Vision VicMap Books © Spatial Vision Pty Ltd 2007 For Internal Use Only. BELMONT Carr l Whit e s i d Mt Pleasan t Rd ool Rd t SOUTH GEELONG Mt Pleasa nt Rd Barrab ns S Rd Fya d ad e ng R o St Pd Balyang Sanctuary Wa Geelon g Ri illop South Geelong Station ey We s t F y a n s St Roslyn Rd Barwon River Major Roads WANDANA Railway Line HEIGHTS Walking Track McK dn HIGHTON NEWTOWN e St GEELONG Sy Buckley Falls Latrobe T ce Rd St Qu e ens Pa rk Page 33 er Rd Gynatrix pulchella Hemp Bush Shrub 2 - 4 m (h) Indigofera australis Austral Indigo Fabaceae Malvaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • Bluish compound leaves • Mauve pea-like flowers, followed by narrow cylindrical pods • Good plants to attract butterflies Very showy when flowering Capsules are hairy A distinctive spotting characteristic is the yellowing of leaves Heart-shaped leaves up to 10cm long and covered in fine hairs Small and highly fragrant flowers Located at Breakwater Road Aboriginal use: Leaves were crushed and added to water to kill or stun fish or eels. Pods were eaten like beans at certain times of the year. Flower colour: Mauve Flowering: Aug - Dec Aboriginal use: String was made from the fibres, and the leaves and wood were used for their oil. Flower colour: Greenish white Flowering: Aug - Oct Page 34 Shrub 1 - 2.5 m (h) 1 - 2 m (w) Page 35 Leptospermum lanigerum Woolly Teatree Myrtaceae Shrub 2 - 5 m (h) 1 - 3 m (w) Leptospermum obovatum River Teatree Myrtaceae Shrub 2 - 3 m (h) 1.5 - 2 m (w) EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • Leaves aromatic, narrow to broad, wider towards the blunt tip • Flowers have five white petals and their nectar attracts insects and birds Five celled furry capsules are attached to branches Mature foliage greyish in colour with under side surface silvery and hairy Juvenile foliage is green in colour and hairy on both sides Found at Wal Whiteside Walk Aboriginal use: The flowers were used for body decorations and the wood for spears, digging sticks and fire sticks. Flower colour: White Aboriginal use: Flowers were used for body decorations. The wood was used for fire sticks. Flower colour: White Flowering: Nov - Jan Flowering: Sept - Jan Page 36 Page 37 Melicytus dentata syn. Hymenanthera dentata Tree Violet Violaceae EVC 175 Grassy Woodland • Upright straggly to dense shrub with spiny branches • Provides excellent habitat for birds • Leaves are dark green in colour, oblong with toothed margins, under side of leaf is a paler green • Masses of tiny fragrant, cream bell flowers along the branches • Fruits are small pale green to purple berries • Found at Breakwater and on the walk to Buckley Falls from the lower car park Flower colour: Cream Muehlenbeckia florulenta Shrub 2 - 4 m (h) 1.5 - 3 m (w) Flowering: Sept - Nov Tangled Lignum Polygonaceae EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland EVC 656 Brackish Wetland EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp • • • • • Provides an excellent safe nesting site for small birds The plant is made up of thin branchlets that are grey-green in colour Leaves are thin and fall early Flowers are small and highly scented, sometimes with a pinkish tint Found all along the river Aboriginal use: Small fishing nets were made from the long branchlets. Flower colour: Pale yellow green Page 38 Shrub 1 - 2.5 m (h) 1 - 2 m (w) Flowering: Sept - Dec Page 39 Myoporum insulare Common Boobialla Myoporaceae Shrub 1 - 6 m (h) 2 - 5 m (w) Myoporum sp 1 syn. Myoporum viscosum Sticky Boobialla Shrub 0.5 - 2 m (h) Myoporaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland • All species of Myoporum have small, white, star like flowers with spotted hairy petals • Myoporum spp. are useful fire retardant plants • Fruits are bright purple and attract birds • Leaves are thick and waxy • Found at Wal Whiteside Walk • Leaves are sticky • Fruits are yellow and bird attracting • Leaves are smaller and thinner than Myoporum insulare, with finely toothed edges • Found at lower picnic area, Buckley Falls Flower colour: White Flower colour: White Flowering: Sept - Dec Flowering: Oct - Nov Page 40 Page 41 Plectranthus parviflorus Cockspur Flower Rhagodia candolleana Shrub 10 - 70 cm(h) Seaberry Bush Lamiaceae Chenopodiaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • • Leaves opposite, somewhat hairy Flowers are pale blue to violet blue often hairy 6-11mm long Restricted to the Leigh and Barwon River areas in Western Victoria Two similar exotic species exist; not known to be naturalised locally, both are aromatic with slightly larger flowers, usually white or purplish • Found at the rocky area around Bunyip’s Pool at Buckley Falls Flower colour: Pale blue Semi-succulent plant Small red berries are produced in autumn and are eaten by lizards and birds Found locally in coastal and salt marsh areas Found at Buckley Falls upper car park Flower colour: Whitish Flowering: Dec - April Flowering: Sept - July Page 42 Shrub 2 m (h) 1 - 2 m (w) Page 43 Rhagodia parabolica Fragrant Saltbush Chenopodiaceae Rubus parvifolius Shrub 0.8 - 2 m (h) 0.5 - 1.5 m (w) Small-leaf Bramble Rosaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland • A rare plant of state significance in Victoria, restricted to rocky areas from Sunbury to Geelong • Inconspicuous white, mealy flowers are followed by small red berries, which are often eaten by lizards and birds • Widely planted and very common along the Barwon River • Found from Breakwater to Buckley Falls • • • • Flower colour: White Flowering: Nov - Jan Shrub 0.5 - 1 m (h) 0.5 - 2 m (w) Similar to Blackberry, the exotic weed, but less vigorous A scrambler that has hooked thorns along its branches Leaves are green and wrinkled above, whitish below Easily distinguished from Blackberry by its bright pink flowers and ripeningred fruits. (Blackberry has white flowers and ripening-black fruits) • Found along the riverside track from the lower car park to Buckley Falls • Also know as the Native Raspberry Aboriginal use: The fruit was eaten much like raspberries. Flower colour: Pink Page 44 Flowering: Oct - Dec Page 45 Solanum laciniatum Large Kangaroo Apple Solanaceae Shrub 1 - 3 m (h) 1 - 3 m (w) Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • • Fruit is large and fleshy shaped like a small egg Immature green fruit ripens to orange 30 seeds are held within each fruit Stems are smooth, except for minute hairs on young growth Leaf shape varies - lobed or smooth edged Found at Wal Whiteside Walk, and on the track to Bunyip’s Pool at Buckley Falls Acacia dealbata subsp. dealbata Silver Wattle Mimosaceae Tree 6 - 20 m (h) 5 - 10 m (w) EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland • Short lived tree, prone to borer attack • Leaves bipinnate and usually bluish-grey in colour • Distinguishing characteristic is one gland between each set of leaflets along the central leaf axis • Juvenile foliage is host to the Imperial Blue Butterfly caterpillar • Found along the riverside track from the Buckley Falls lower car park Aboriginal use: Fruit were eaten when ripe by the Wathaurung people, unripe fruits are poisonous. Aboriginal use: The Wathaurung people gathered seeds and ground them into flour. The gum was eaten and used as medicine and the wood was used for tools. Flower colour: Purple Flower colour: Bright yellow Flowering: Sept - March Page 46 Flowering: July - Oct Page 47 Acacia implexa Acacia mearnsii Tree 4 - 8 m (h) 4 - 6 m (w) Lightwood Mimosaceae Black Wattle Mimosaceae EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • • • • Fast growing, open crowned tree Pods are curved or twisted, 25cm long Seed stalks are fleshy and white Crescent shaped green phyllodes Found on tops of cliffs on way from lower car park to Buckley Falls Aboriginal use: Seeds were ground to make flour. Bark was used for tanning. Flower colour: Cream Flowering: Dec - Mar Page 48 Tree 5 - 15 m (h) 6 - 10 m (w) Green bark on younger stems Leaves are bi-pinnate and dark olive green in colour Glands are irregularly spaced along the central leaf axis Europeans used the bark for tanning leather Found at upper car park Buckley Falls and Wal Whiteside Walk Aboriginal use: Some parts of the tree were used for dyeing items. The gum was used for food and traded; it was very valuable to the Wathaurung people. Flower colour: Pale yellow Flowering: Oct - Dec Page 49 Acacia melanoxylon Blackwood Mimosaceae Acacia paradoxa Tree 6 - 30 m (h) 4 - 15 m (w) Hedge Wattle Mimosaceae EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • • • • Small to large upright tree with rough bark. Phyllodes are dull green and rigid, 4-16 cm long Distinctive bright red seed stems The wood is highly prized for furniture making Found at Wal Whiteside Walk Tree 2 - 4 m (h) 2 - 5 m (w) A dense, thorny shrub with a weeping growth habit Provides excellent habitat and protection for nesting birds Pods are furry Sphere shaped flower heads are produced on slender stalks Found near the lower picnic area at Buckley Falls Aboriginal use: The seeds were gathered and ground for flour. Aboriginal use: Seeds were collected and ground to make flour. Flower colour: Pale creamy yellow Flower colour: Deep golden yellow Flowering: Aug - Oct Page 50 Flowering: Aug - Nov Page 51 Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle Mimosaceae Acacia retinodes var. uncifolia Tree 3 - 8 m (h) 2 - 5 m (w) EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland Coast Wirilda Mimosaceae Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • Australia’s National Floral emblem • A slender tree with large, waxy, green curved phyllodes • This acacia has a distinctive gland on the edge of the phyllode, 2cm from the base • Thin straight pods • Can be found near lower picnic area at Buckley Falls • • • • • Phyllodes are long and narrow with an abrupt tip Flowers are sphere shaped heads, 18-30 per head Branchlets are angular and often reddish Pods to 15cm, seed stems are reddish Can be found near the low level bridge at Breakwater Flower colour: Light yellow Flowering: Oct - Feb Aboriginal use: Seeds were grounded into flour. Flower colour: Golden yellow Flowering: Aug - Oct Page 52 Page 53 Tree 2 - 6 m (h) 2 - 3 m (w) Acacia verticillata subsp verticillata Prickly Moses Mimosaceae Allocasuarina verticillata Tree 2 - 6 m (h) 3 - 5 m (w) Drooping Sheoak Casuarinaceae EVC 175 Grassy Woodland EVC 175 Grassy Woodland • • • • • • • • • • • Fine prickly phyllodes up to 20mm long Provides excellent habitat and protection for small birds Can endure periods of water logging Found at Breakwater Aboriginal use: Wathaurung people made fishing lines from the fibres. Flower colour: Yellow Flowering: Jun - Dec Tree 4 - 11 m (h) 3 - 6 m (w) Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants Male plants have yellow-brown flower spikes (upper right photo) Female flowers are red and sphere shaped (lower right photo) Branchlets drooping, grey-green, to 40 cm long The seeds are a food source for cockatoos Cylindrical or barrel-shaped woody cones 20-50 mm long, 17-30 mm in diameter Found at the Wal Whiteside Walk and Breakwater Aboriginal use: The Wathaurung used the gum/resin to join many things. Seeds were ground for flour; leaves were used in smoking ceremonies and medicines. Flower colour: Brown/Orange-red Page 54 Flowering: All year round Page 55 Banksia marginata Silver Banksia Proteaceae Tree 1 - 10 m (h) 1 - 5 m (w) Callitris glaucophylla White Cypress Pine Cupressaceae Tree 7 - 20 m (h) 5 - 10 m (w Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • Provides nectar for Honeybees, native Carpenter Bees, Ringtail and Pygmy Possums, many insects and nectar-eating birds • Flowers form yellow spikes 40-100mm long • Underside of leaves are silver in colour • Upright tree • Wind pollinated seed, bears both male and female cones • Male cones are tiny at the ends of the branchlets, female cones are sphere shaped, to 2cm, in groups or solitary • Termite resistant wood • Found at Breakwater near the low level Bridge and at Buckley Falls Aboriginal use: Flowers were collected and then soaked in water to make cordial or sweet water. Flower colour: Yellow Flowering: Sept - April Aboriginal use: Seeds were roasted and ground to make flour; the sap was used for joining tools. Leaves were used in smoking ceremonies and medicine. Flower colour: No flower Page 56 Flowering: None Page 57 Eucalyptus camaldulensis River Red-gum Myrtaceae Eucalyptus ovata var. ovata Tree 12 - 45 m (h) 15 - 35 m (w) Swamp Gum Myrtaceae EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 641 Riparian Woodland EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland EVC 175 Grassy Woodland • Bark smooth, mottled, white to yellow and grey, becoming rough around the base • Adult leaves are dull green in color and narrow to 25cm long • Juvenile leaves are bluish-green in colour • Flower buds and fruits are distinctive • • • • Tree 8 - 30 m (h) 8 - 20 m (w) Broad, wavy-edged leaves Seed capsules are funnel shaped with a flat top Leaves lack typical eucalyptus scent Grows best on poorly drained sites Aboriginal use: River Red Gum wood was used to make canoes, tools and paddles. Leaves were used in smoking ceremonies and medicine. Aboriginal use: Leaves were used in smoking ceremonies and medicines. The gum was as an adhesive, and chewed like “chewy” and was not swallowed. Flower colour: Cream to yellow Flower colour: White to cream Flowering: Nov - March Page 58 Flowering: Mar - Jan Page 59 Eucalyptus viminalis Manna Gum Myrtaceae Melaleuca lanceolata Tree 10 - 50 m (h) 8 - 15 m (w) Moonah Myrtaceae EVC 175 Grassy Woodland Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland • • • • • • • • • • Koalas favour the leaves of this eucalypt as a food source Bark is shed in ribbons This tree is used extensively for timber, pulp and honey production Found at lower Buckley Falls and Queens Park Juvenile leaves (shown above) are opposite and tapering Aboriginal use: Lerp insects are found on the tree in summer months. These are tiny, sucking insects that produce a sugary “shell”. This was known as “nature’s fairy floss” which the Wathaurung children would enjoy. Flower colour: White Flowering: Jan - May Page 60 Tree 1 - 8 m (h) 3 - 8 m (w) Distinctive dense heavy limbed tree when mature Small lance-shaped leaves Small white flowers are arranged in dense spikes along the stems Flowers are followed by woody capsules that encircle the stems Found at Balyang Sanctuary and at Buckley Falls Aboriginal use: Leaves were used for smoking ceremonies and medicines. Bark was used to support broken bones, wrapped tightly around the break. Flower colour: White to cream Flowering: Oct - March Page 61 Index BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME Acacia dealbata ssp. dealbata Acacia implexa Acacia mearnsii Acacia melanoxylon Acacia paradoxa Acacia pycnantha Acacia retinodes Acacia verticillata ssp. verticillata Acaena novae-zelandiae Allocasuarina verticillata Austrodanthonia spp. Azolla filiculoides Banksia marginata Bursaria spinosa ssp. spinosa Callistemon sieberi Callitris glaucophylla Carex tereticaulis Chrysocephalum apiculatum Clematis microphylla Correa reflexa Dianella revoluta Dodonaea viscosa ssp. spatulata Einadia nutans Enchylaena tomentosa Eucalyptus camaldulensis Eucalyptus ovata var. ovata Eucalyptus viminalis ssp. viminalis Ficinia nodosa Goodenia ovata Gynatrix pulchella Indigofera australis Juncus spp. Leptospermum lanigerum Leptospermum obovatum Lomandra longifolia Lythrum salicaria Melaleuca lanceolata Melicytus dentata (syn. Hymenanthera dentata) Muehlenbeckia florulenta Myoporum insulare Silver Wattle Lightwood Late Black Wattle Blackwood Hedge Wattle Golden Wattle Wirilda Prickly Moses Bidgee-widgee Drooping She-oak Wallaby grasses Pacific Azolla Silver Banksia Sweet Bursaria River Bottlebrush White Cypress-pine Basket Sedge Clustered Everlasting Small-leaved Clematis Common Correa Black-anther Flax-lily Wedge-leaf Hop-Bush Nodding Saltbush Ruby Saltbush River Red Gum Swamp Gum Manna Gum Knobby Club-sedge Hop Goodenia Hemp Bush Austral Indigo Rushes Woolly Tea-tree River Tea-tree Spiny-headed Mat-rush Purple Loosestrife Moonah Tree Violet Tangled Lignum Common Boobialla Page 62 Index (cont.) PAGE 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 9 55 19 5 56 27 28 57 20 14 10 29 21 30 11 12 58 59 60 22 31 34 35 23 36 37 24 15 61 38 39 40 BOTANICAL NAME Myoporum sp1. syn. Myoporum viscosum Phragmites australis Plectranthus parviflorus Poa labillardierei Rhagodia candolleana Rhagodia parabolica Rubus parvifolius Senecio quadridentatus Solanum laciniatum Tetragonia implexicoma Themeda triandra Triglochin procerum Typha domingensis Vittadinia cuneata Wahlenbergia gracilis COMMON NAME PAGE Sticky Boobialla Common Reed Cockspur Flower Common Tussock-grass Seaberry Saltbush Fragrant Saltbush Small-leaf Bramble Cotton Fireweed Large Kangaroo Apple Bower Spinach Kangaroo Grass Water Ribbons Narrow-leaf Cumbungi Fuzzy New Holland Daisy Sprawling Bluebell 41 6 42 25 43 44 45 16 46 13 26 7 8 17 18 Glossary Awns: bristle-like projection on grass seeds Bi-pinnate: a leaf twice divided Capsules: dry fruit, which splits open to release seeds Cylindrical: tubular shape Lance-shaped: leaves tapering to a point like the tip of a spear Leaflets: part of a divided leaf Linear: long and narrow Lobed: leaf with indented margins Ovate: wider below the centre of a leaf Perennial: a plant that lives for more than two years Phyllodes: flattened leaf stalk Rhizome: underground stem Spike (Flower): a flowering structure with many small flowers clustered around a central stem Spines: sharp pointed part of a plant Spores: dust like reproductive unit Succulent: fleshy water holding leaves or plants Tuberous root: enlarged water holding root such as potatoes or beetroot Page 63 Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the following people who contributed to this publication. Melissa Gunn, Jane Sutherland, Amanda May, Irene Perkins, Andrew McKinnon, Tim Solly, Andrew Quick, Beth Ross, Trevor Pescott, Rebecca Bond, Tony Woolford, Joan Lindros, Friends of the Bluff, David Tournier, Matt Crawley, Joanne Heatlie, Rebecca Bond and thank you to the following agencies for their contributions. COR ANG AM I TE CM A Page 64