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Transcript
Animal Diversity
BSC 2011L
Major Divisions of Life
Eukaryotes *
Bacteria Archaea Microsporidia Flagellata Animalia
Fungi Ciliata
Plantae
* membrane bound
nucleus
Major Divisions of Life
Bacteria Archaea Microsporidia Flagellata Animalia
Fungi Ciliata
Multicellular
Plantae
Major Divisions of Life
These multicellular groups were divided
based on feeding mode & fundamental
organizational differences.
Animalia
Fungi
Plantae
•heterotrophic
(ingest and digest food)
•heterotrophic
(absorb food)
•autotrophic
(photosynthesis)
•no cell walls
•cell walls made of
chitin
•cell walls made of
cellulose
Diversity of Animal Life
What is an animal?
• multicellular (Branch Metazoa)
• eukaryote
• heterotrophic
• blastula stage
• generally motile
How are these animals
grouped?
Complexity
– level of organization
Morphology
– general body plan
– symmetry
– comparative biochemistry
Development
– type of developmental patterns
Level of Organization
Cell
• no tissues, no organs
• individual cells accomplish physiological functions
Tissue
• cells are organized into tissues and work together to
accomplish physiological functions
Organ
• tissues are organized into organs that accomplish
physiological functions
General Body Plan
presence of different body structures
• does it have a head?
• does it have a backbone?
• does it have tentacles? etc…
solutions to different body functions
• how do they move?
• how do they feed?
• how do they reproduce? etc…
Types of Symmetry
• the arrangement of body structures relative
to some axis of the body
Asymmetrical
Radial
Bilaterial
Comparative Biochemistry
• comparing DNA and amino acid sequences
among animals
Developmental Patterns
• type of cell cleavage
• type of embryo development
• presence, type, and formation of a body
cavity
• etc…
sea urchin
Taxonomic Hierarchy
Linnaen system of binomial nomenclature
example - Humans
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Mammalia
Order
Primates
Family
Hominidae
Genus
Homo
Species
sapiens
* the plural of Phylum = Phyla *
Phylum Porifera
the sponges
Phylum Porifera
Branch Parazoa – “beside + animal”
Sponges are at the cellular level of
organization and have no tissues or organs.
Sponges are assemblages of cells embedded
in a protein matrix and supported by a
skeleton of needle-like structures.
External Morphology
General Body Plan
osculum
(plural=oscula)
spongocoel
ostia
(singular=ostium)
water
3 Body Types
Based on the complexity of the water canals:
• Asconoid
• Syconoid
• Leuconoid
Increasing size
Increasing SA:V
Asconoid Body Type
osculum
spongocoel
ostium
* spongocoel is lined with choanocytes *
Asconoid Body Type
osculum
spongocoel
water
ostium
Syconoid Body Type
incurrent
canal
osculum
ostium
prosopyle
radial canal
apopyle
* radial canals are lined with choanocytes *
Syconoid Body Type
incurrent
canal
osculum
water
ostium
prosopyle
radial canal
apopyle
Leuconoid Body Type
osculum
apopyle
ostium
incurrent
canal
flagellated chambers
prosopyle
* flagellated chambers are lined with choanocytes *
Leuconoid Body Type
osculum
water
apopyle
ostium
incurrent
canal
flagellated chambers
prosopyle
Microscopic Morphology
archaeocyte
(amoebocyte)
porocyte
choanocyte
pinacocyte
spicules
mesohyl
Skeletal Elements
Mesohyl
• proteinaceous matrix that
contains skeletal material and
certain cell types
• equivalent to the connective
tissue in other organisms
• made of collagen
and spongin
Skeletal Elements
Spicules
• made of calcium carbonate or
silica
• often used in taxonomic
identification
Cell Types
Choanocytes
• collar cells
• diagnostic of phylum Porifera
• consist of a long flagellum
surrounded by a “collar” of
microvilli
• functions:
-obtaining food
-creating water currents
-reproduction
Cell Types
Archaeocytes
• also called “amoebocytes”
• found throughout mesohyl
• totipotent  can differentiate into
any other type of cell
• functions:
- digestion through phagocytosis
- make spicules
- reproduction
Cell Types
inside of sponge
outside of sponge
Pinacocytes
• line the exterior surface of the
sponge
• functions:
- some can regulate water flow
by moving (open/close ostia)
Cell Types
inside of sponge
outside of sponge
Porocytes
• found in asconoid sponges
• form tubes in the body wall
where water can pass through
• functions:
- allow water flow
Physiology
Feeding
– Sessile filter-feeders
Digestion
– Intracellular
Gas exchange
– Simple diffusion
Excretion (nitrogenous waste removal)
– Simple diffusion
Physiology
Reproduction
Asexual
•
•
•
•
fragmentation
budding
regeneration
gemmules
- in freshwater sponges only
- resistant mass of archaeocytes that are
produced in unfavorable conditions
- when the environment is nice again,
they will develop into sponges
Physiology
Reproduction
Sexual
• usually monoecious
(a single individual can produce both
male and female gametes; both sexes are
within one individual)
• sperm are released into the water and
eggs are retained within the sponge
• motile larvae are produced (some swim,
some crawl), metamorphose, and become
juvenile sponges
Ecology
• most sponges are marine (~5000 species) but
there are ~150 freshwater sponge species
• Sponges are found at all depths but certain
species are restricted to particular depths due
to how their spicules are formed
• There are few sponge predators because they
usually contain distasteful toxins
• Some predators (e.g. sea slugs) sequester
these sponge toxins which in turn deters their
own predators
Ecology
Symbiosis –
the living together of 2 different species in an
intimate relationship
Types of symbiotic relationships:
– Mutualism= both partners benefit
– Commensalism= 1 partner benefits, 1 partner is unaffected
– Parasitism= 1 partner benefits, 1 partner is harmed
There are examples of all 3 of these types of
symbiotic relationships occurring in Sponges
Ecology
Mutualism –
• certain ‘endosymbiotic’ bacteria and algae living
within the sponge provide additional food for the
sponge while the sponge provides a place for the
bacteria and algae to grow
• some crabs will attach a piece of
sponge to their body to use as
camouflage and to deter predators
while the sponge gets to move
around
Ecology
Commensalism –
• many different species live within sponges and
receive food and shelter benefits but do nothing for
the sponge
e.g. 15cm² piece of sponge in California was found
to house 100 different species of plants + animals
e.g.Venus’s Flower basket
a pair of shrimp live their entire lives
within 1 sponge
Ecology
Parasitism –
• boring sponges are parasites on certain corals
because they bore into the calcium carbonate base
of the coral for protection and kill part of the coral
in the process
Current Sponge Research
Chemical defenses –
• the compounds that sponges use to defend themselves from
predators are being researched for potential biomedical
applications
Cell-cell communication –
• although sponges have no nervous system, cells are capable
of communicating with one another
• Sponges can also recognize foreign cells and particles and
mount an immune response
Animal Evolution –
• relationship between sponges and all other Metazoans
remains unclear