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Transcript
CHAPTER 3: FEDERALISM
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Federalism is a way of organizing a nation so that
a. power is centralized in state and local government.
b. both national and state levels of government have some authority over the same land and
people.
c. there is one federal government, and all regional governments are administrative subunits
of it.
d. power is centralized in the national government.
e. there are three branches of government and a system of checks and balances.
2. All of the following areas provide examples of how federalism decentralizes our policies
EXCEPT
a. the federal income tax.
b. the regulation of abortion.
c. the death penalty.
d. the funding of education.
e. environmental protection.
3. In our federal system, the powers of the state governments are ultimately granted by
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
their state’s Supreme Court.
the people of their state.
their state legislature.
the United States Constitution.
the United States government.
4. The supremacy clause
a. establishes the Constitution, laws of the national government, and treaties as the supreme
law of the land.
b. establishes the Supreme Court as the final arbiter in all civil and criminal disputes.
c. declares that the national government is superior to the states in every concern.
d. states that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited
by the states, are reserved to the states.
e. states that the people are the supreme authority in the United States and that the
government shall be subservient to them.
5. The Tenth Amendment is sometimes referred to as the _____________amendment.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
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states’ rights
implied powers
delegated powers
necessary and proper
Prohibition
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6. In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Chief Justice Marshall argued that
a. in cases of conflict between national and state law, the national law was supreme as long
as national law was in accordance with the Constitution.
b. the national government has implied powers that go beyond those explicitly enumerated
in Article I, Section 8.
c. Congress’ enumerated power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes implied
the right of Congress to do whatever was necessary and proper for carrying out these
powers, including the power to create a bank.
d. Maryland could not tax the national bank.
e. All of the above were argued by Marshall.
7. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to establish post offices. This is an example
of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
enumerated powers.
delegated powers.
implied powers.
reserved powers.
shared powers.
8. A marriage license issued in one state is valid and honored in all states under the constitutional
provision of
a. separation of powers.
b. full faith and credit.
c. national supremacy.
d. national licensure.
e. privileges and immunities.
9. Over time, there has been a gradual change from a dual federalism to a(n) ________ federalism.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
unitary
single
tripartite
cooperative
fiscal
10. Funding for the interstate highway system is an example of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
dual federalism.
cooperative federalism.
tripartite federalism.
a unitary system of government.
national federalism.
11. The set of interactions among national, state, and local governments is called
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
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pluralism.
bicameralism.
hyperpluralism.
intergovernmental relations.
international relations.
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12. Since the mid-1990s, Republicans in Congress have taken a pragmatic approach to federalism
evidenced by
a. efforts to restrict state power while turning to the federal government in policy areas such
as environmental regulation, immigration, and health.
b. legislation removing class action lawsuits from state courts.
c. passage of the No Child Left Behind Act.
d. extending federal criminal penalties.
e. All of these are evidence of Republicans’ pragmatic approach.
13. Fiscal federalism is
a. the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
b. the distinct separation of national government spending versus state and local
government spending.
c. the federal government’s regulation of the money supply and interest rates.
d. the federal income tax.
e. a sharing of local and national resources practiced in other countries but not in the United
States.
14. On the whole, federal grant distribution follows the principle of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
universalism.
stinginess.
cronyism.
to the victors go the spoils.
needs testing.
15. According to Democracy in America, the rapid growth of the national government is largely due
to the fact that
a. the diversity of interests within and among the states requires a national focus.
b. states are constitutionally prohibited from maintaining independent defense forces and
policies.
c. the states have failed to adequately represent their interests.
d. the Constitution requires that most programs be administered by the national government.
e. most problems and policies require the authority and resources of the national
government.
16. Which of the following is TRUE of fiscal federalism?
a. The proportion of the gross domestic product spent by state and local governments has
grown more rapidly than the proportion of the GDP spent by the national government
b. The proportion of the gross domestic product spent by state and local government has
grown less rapidly than the proportion of the GDP spent by the national government.
c. States and localities spent 7.4 percent of our GDP in 1929; today they spend even less.
d. Block grants are the main source of federal aid to state and local governments.
e. Unlike the federal government, federal courts do not have the ability to impose mandates
on state governments.
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17. Which of the following is one way that federalism may have a negative effect on democracy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Federalism may increase inequities between and among states.
Federalism tends to increase conflict at the national level.
Federalism tends to decrease opportunities for citizens to participate in government.
Federalism may encourage electoral dissent.
None of these is an example of how federalism may have a negative effect on democracy.
True/False Questions
1. In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court ruled that national government’s power to regulate
interstate commerce encompasses virtually every form of commercial activity.
2. The notion that a citizen of one state receives the privileges and immunities of any other state is
the notion that states cannot discriminate against citizens of other states.
3. In the early part of American history, cooperative federalism characterized intergovernmental
relations; the course of the twentieth century, in contrast, is primarily characterized by dual
federalism.
4. Fiscal federalism refers to a transferring of responsibility for public policy from the federal
government to state and local governments.
5. The primary source of federal aid to state and local governments is categorical grants.
6. The government’s failed response to Hurricane Katrina illustrates the problems that can arise
when unfunded mandates are paired with insufficient funds for states.
7. Federalism creates more layers of government and more opportunities for political participation.
8. There are close to 90,000 governments in the United States.
9. The national government’s share of American governmental expenditures has declined over the
course of the twentieth century.
10. Diversity in the context of federalism is one factor that encourages states to provide a greater
number of services to their citizens compared to other states.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which of the following is NOT true when it comes to federalism?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
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Few countries have federal systems.
Most federal systems are democracies.
Authoritarian regimes generally do not use federalist systems.
No unitary governments are democratic.
Only some democracies use federal systems.
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2. Which of the following statements is TRUE when it comes to types of governments?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The American states have unitary governments.
Federalism is the typical way nations organize their governments.
Great Britain has a federal system.
Most European countries are confederations.
None of the above is true.
3. Which of the following is an example of a confederation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
State governments in the United States
The United Nations
OPEC
Britain
France
4. A unitary government is
a. the type of government found in the United States.
b. a government in which all power resides in a central government.
c. a government in which power is divided between a central government and regional
governments.
d. a government in which power resides in regional or state governments.
e. the least common form of national government across the globe.
5. According to the ______ of Article IV of the U.S. Constitution, the Constitution, the laws of the
national government, and treaties constitute the supreme law of the land.
a. implied powers clause
b. elastic clause
c. necessary and proper clause
d. supremacy clause
e. Tenth Amendment
6. The Constitution grants the power to directly regulate such things as drinking ages, marriage and
divorce, and sexual behavior to
a. all governments by the Bill of Rights.
b. the national government.
c. the president.
d. state governments.
e. both the state and national governments.
7. The fact that the legal drinking age is 21 across the 50 United States is a good example of
a. the weakness of the states compared to the federal government.
b. the tendency for the federal government to ignore state police powers.
c. the influence the national government can wield over state governments through the
withholding of federal funds, despite state police powers.
d. the ability of the federal government to get around limitations on its power as set forth in
the Tenth Amendment.
e. centralized public policy making.
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8. Which of the following is often seen as a benefit of federalism, according to your textbook?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
It encourages hyperpluralism.
It allows states to function as laboratories of democracy, or policy innovators.
It creates conflict between national and state governments.
It creates more opportunities for interest groups to wield influence.
Both a and d are often seen as benefits of federalism.
9. Almost every policy the national government has adopted has originated with
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
the Senate.
the states.
the House of Representatives.
the Supreme Court.
the president.
10. Which of the following was NOT among the reasons the Framers adopted a federal system when
they wrote the Constitution?
a. The confederation had clearly failed in managing the country’s problems.
b. The population was too dispersed for a unitary system to work.
c. Americans’ loyalty to state governments was stronger than it was to the United States.
d. America had always had a federal system, and it would have been too radical and
disruptive a change to adopt another system.
e. The country’s transportation and communication systems were too primitive for a unitary
government to work.
11. The Constitution’s supremacy clause
a. does not apply to state and local matters.
b. gives the states superiority over the national government’s Constitution and laws.
c. made the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and the national
government’s treaties the supreme law of the land.
d. is vague about which level of government should prevail in a dispute involving
federalism.
e. makes the president supreme in any constitutional conflicts with the other two branches.
12. Powers of the federal government that are not explicitly listed but instead are inferred from the
necessary and proper clause are called ____ powers.
a. enumerated
b. implied
c. inherent
d. dominant
e. federalist
13. The landmark case in which the Supreme Court interpreted Article I, Section 8 such that
Congress was given the power to regulate interstate commerce in a way that encompasses
virtually all forms of commercial activity was
a. McCulloch v. Maryland.
b. U.S. v Lopez.
c. Gibbons v. Odgen.
d. Mack v. United States.
e. Printz v. United States.
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14. Which of the following is TRUE of the Constitution?
a. It created obligations of the national government toward the state, including the
obligation to protect states from invasion.
b. It established states as vital components of the machinery of government.
c. It guaranteed states equal representation in the Senate.
d. It guaranteed the continuation of each state by forbidding Congress to create new states
by dividing existing states without the approval of the existing state.
e. All of these are true of the Constitution.
15. The Tenth Amendment
a. declares that the national government is superior to the states in every concern.
b. establishes the Constitution, laws of the national government, and treaties as the supreme
law of the land.
c. establishes the Supreme Court as the final arbiter in all civil and criminal disputes.
d. establishes the number of electoral votes each state can cast in the Electoral College.
e. states that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited
by the states, are reserved for the states.
16. In the Constitution, the powers to coin money, to enter into treaties, and to regulate commerce
with foreign nations and among the states were given to
a. neither the individual states nor the national government.
b. the national government.
c. the individual states.
d. the Senate only.
e. both the individual states and the national government.
17. Only the national government is allowed to
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
levy taxes.
regulate commerce with foreign nations.
take private property for public purposes.
make and enforce laws.
Only the national government is allowed to do all of these.
18. In the events leading up to McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), what was the main criticism of the
national bank created by the United States government?
a. It was printing too much worthless paper money that debtors were using to pay off their
debts.
b. It was charging exorbitant interest rates on its loans.
c. It was borrowing too much money, putting the United States government hopelessly in
debt.
d. It was an instrument of the elite and gave the national government too much control of
the economy.
e. It did not efficiently distribute money to the states.
19. The McCulloch v. Maryland case dealt with what specific grievance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
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A state taxing a national bank
Toll bridges on interstate roads
The location of Maryland’s capital city
A state coining its own money
Import taxes on goods made in other states
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20. The principle of the supremacy of federal law over state law was affirmed in
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Marbury v. Madison.
the Tenth Amendment.
United States v. Darby.
McCulloch v. Maryland.
the presidential election of 1804.
21. The Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
established Baltimore as the capital of Maryland.
stated that the Constitution gave Congress implied powers.
established the principle of judicial review.
established the supremacy of state governments.
recognized that Congress was limited to its enumerated powers.
22. The enumerated powers of Congress and the national government are those
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
specifically spelled out in the Constitution.
set out in the first ten amendments.
involving taxes, spending, and fiscal policy.
not specifically spelled out in the Constitution, but nonetheless acknowledged.
requiring ratification by the states.
23. Federal policies to regulate food and drugs, build interstate highways, protect consumers, try to
clean up dirty air and water, and do many other things are all justified as ________ of Congress.
a. implied powers
b. categorical grants
c. constitutionally specified powers
d. reserved powers
e. enumerated powers
24. The Constitution’s provision that Congress has the right to “make all laws necessary and proper
for carrying into execution” its powers is often referred to as the
a. enumerated powers.
b. heart of fiscal federalism.
c. Unwritten Amendment.
d. elastic clause.
e. privileges and immunities.
25. Enumerated powers are those that are
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
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reserved for the states.
stated in the Constitution.
implied in the Constitution.
involving money matters.
granted specifically to the president.
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26. In determining the power of Congress to regulate commerce in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824), the Supreme Court
a. prohibited Congress from regulating business activity on the grounds it violated private
property rights.
b. listed the implied powers of Congress and the national government.
c. defined commerce very narrowly in considering the right of Congress to regulate it.
d. listed the enumerated powers of Congress and the national government.
e. defined commerce very broadly, encompassing virtually every form of commercial
activity.
27. In U.S. v. Lopez (1995), the Supreme Court held that the Gun Free School Zone Act was a(n)
a. constitutional extension of Congress’ interstate commerce power.
b. constitutional and implied power of Congress.
c. constitutional under Congress’ commerce power due to the economic impact of gun
possession.
d. unconstitutional because it exceeded Congress’ constitutional authority to regulate
commerce.
e. unconstitutional because it violated the Second Amendment’s guarantee to bear arms.
28. The Court’s decision in United States v. Morrison (2000) was significant because it
a. limited Congress’ use of its interstate commerce powers.
b. ruled that Congress did not have the power to enact the 1994 Violence Against Women
Act.
c. established a firm set of guidelines for applying Congress’ commerce powers.
d. Both a and b are true.
e. Both a and c are true.
29. The Supreme Court case of Printz v. United States
a. enhanced the powers of Congress by expanding its interpretation of commerce.
b. denied Congress the power of regulating guns in school zones.
c. voided the congressional mandate in the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
requiring local community officials to conduct background checks on prospective gun
purchasers.
d. affirmed the provisions of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.
e. None of the above is true.
30. The Defense of Marriage Act
a. permits states to disregard same-sex marriages or civil unions of same-sex partners issued
in other states.
b. prohibits states from issuing same-sex marriages or civil unions to same-sex partners.
c. requires states to issue same-sex marriages and civil unions to same-sex partners.
d. requires states to recognize same-sex marriage or civil unions issued in other states for
same-sex partners.
e. requires states to provide the same rights to same-sex couples that they provide to
heterosexual couples.
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31. Which of the following is TRUE of intergovernmental relations in the United States over the past
two centuries?
a. There has been a gradual shift from dual federalism to cooperative federalism.
b. There is a greater sharing of powers between the national and state governments.
c. There has been an increase in federal grants-in-aid to the states and localities from the
national government.
d. Intergovernmental relations are increasingly characterized by fiscal federalism.
e. All of these are true of intergovernmental relations in the United States over the past two
centuries.
32. The national government has exclusive control over foreign and military policy, the postal
system, and monetary policy, while the states have exclusive control over other specific areas.
This division of responsibilities reflects
a. dual federalism.
b. divided government.
c. tripartite federalism.
d. cooperative federalism.
e. fiscal federalism.
33. Cooperative federalism refers to a system in which
a. the national government and the state governments share powers and policy assignments.
b. the national government and the state governments have clearly defined, distinct powers
and policy assignments.
c. the national government reigns supreme over the state governments.
d. the state governments reign supreme over the national government.
e. None of the above is true.
34. Federal support for public education is an example of a
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
pragmatic federalism.
dual federalism.
cooperative federalism.
layer cake federalism.
separation of powers.
35. Standard operating procedures in cooperative federalism include each of the following EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
shared administration.
shared costs.
federal funding with no strings attached.
federal guidelines.
categorical and block grants.
36. Devolution refers to
a. transferring responsibility for policies from the state governments to the national
government.
b. transferring responsibility for policies from the national government to state
governments.
c. returning to the politics of nineteenth-century federalism.
d. unwinding federalism and moving toward a unitary system.
e. a movement among liberal activist judges to expand Congress’ interstate commerce
power.
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37. The main instrument the national government uses to influence state governments is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
grants-in-aid.
mandates.
judicial review.
the Tenth Amendment.
presidential decrees.
38. The principal type of federal aid for states and localities is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
categorical grants.
disaster loans.
revenue sharing.
block grants.
urban renewal grants.
39. The most common type of categorical grant is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
A block grant.
a rescission fund.
A project grant.
disaster relief.
revenue sharing.
40. Grants for specific programs distributed according to community demographic factors, such as
population or income, are
a. formula grants.
b. categorical grants.
c. revenue-sharing grants.
d. project grants.
e. block grants.
41. Grants that are given more or less automatically to states or communities, which have discretion
in deciding how to spend the money, are called
a. project grants.
b. discretionary grants.
c. formula grants.
d. categorical grants.
e. block grants.
42. Withholding federal funds from states that do not raise the legal drinking age to 21 is an example
of a(n)
a. crossover sanction.
b. unfunded mandate.
c. project grant.
d. formula grant.
e. crosscutting requirement.
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43. Over the past generation, the percentage of federal grants devoted to _____ has increased
substantially.
a. health care
b. income security
c. education and training
d. transportation
e. defense
44. The transferring of responsibility for policies from the federal government to the states is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
devolution.
evolution.
intergovernmental relations.
pluralism.
fiscal federalism.
45. Which of the following helps explain the failed government response to Hurricane Katrina?
a. State and local officials assumed Washington would provide rapid and substantial aid,
but leaders in Louisiana and New Orleans were not always sure what they needed.
b. Open-ended pleas for help from state and local officials were hard for federal officials to
interpret.
c. Fractured division of responsibility meant that no one person or agency was in charge.
d. The governor was reluctant to “federalize” the Louisiana National Guard because she
feared losing authority over it and lacked confidence in the national government.
e. All of these help explain the failed government response to Hurricane Katrina.
46. When Congress passes a law creating financial obligations for the states but provides no funds for
states to meet those obligations, it is called a(n)
a. crossover sanction.
b. crosscutting requirement.
c. unfunded mandate.
d. categorical grant.
e. block grant.
47. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is an example of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
policy constructed under conditions of cooperative federalism.
dual federalism in action.
policy devolution.
a categorical grant
a block grant.
48. Which of the following is a way that federalism contributes to democracy?
a. By decentralizing the political system, federalism creates more opportunities for political
participation.
b. By centralizing the political system, federalism protects the political system from the
whims of the masses.
c. By decreasing the number of units of government, federalism reduces citizen access to
government and public policy.
d. By ensuring that all states provide the same levels of services to their citizens, federalism
ensures equality in a democracy.
e. None of these is a way that federalism contributes to democracy.
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49. Recent Census Bureau estimates report that there are approximately ______ American
governments.
a. 51
b. 1,000
c. 5,000
d. 15,000
e. 90,000
50. In 1929, the federal government spent an amount equal to _____ of the size of the economy, the
gross domestic product (GDP); today, the national government spends _____ of our GDP.
a. 2 percent; 5 percent
b. 2.5 percent; 21 percent
c. 21 percent; 2.5 percent
d. 25 percent; 50 percent
e. 50 percent; 25 percent
51. Which of the following is true of changes in the scope of government under federalism?
a. State governments carry out virtually all of the functions they always have, while the
national government has taken on new functions.
b. The national government has taken away nearly all of the functions of the states.
c. The national government has taken about one-half of the functions of state government.
d. There has been a sharp decline in the proportion of gross national product spent by states
and localities.
e. State policy functions have been fully assumed by the national government.
True/False Questions
1. The federal government is the first responder in most emergencies.
2. Most nations of the world have federal systems.
3. The power to regulate health, safety, and morals is a province of the states.
4. The Supreme Court has ruled that the Tenth Amendment does not give states power superior to
that of the national government for activities not mentioned in the Constitution.
5. Congress made an exception to the full faith and credit provision of the Constitution by passing
the Defense of Marriage Act, which allows states to not recognize same-sex marriages conducted
in other states.
6. The Constitution says that the states must return a person charged with a crime in another state to
that state for trial or imprisonment.
7. Dual federalism refers to a sharing of powers between the national and state governments in
which each remains supreme in their own sphere.
8. Cooperative federalism refers to a system in which states and the national government share
powers and policy assignments.
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9. Patterns of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system are referred to as fiscal
federalism.
10. Categorical grants and block grants are the two major types of federal aid to state and local
governments.
11. During most of the twentieth century, Democrats favored reducing the power of the federal
government in order to permit states to have greater control over policies such as child labor,
Social Security, health care, and education.
12. Whereas project grants are given for specific purposes, block grants are given to support broad
purposes.
13. Federal grants are notorious for being poorly distributed. Some states and regions receive the
lion’s share; others come away with almost nothing.
14. Requirements that state and local governments comply with federal rules under threat of penalties
or as a condition of receiving a federal grant are called mandates.
15. To the extent that it increases citizen access to state level government, federalism increases
opportunities for government to be responsive to demands for public policies.
Short Answer Questions
1.
In what ways are contemporary controversies related to federalism illustrated in the government’s failed
response to Hurricane Katrina?
2.
Describe the constitutional basis of federalism.
3.
Explain the two questions facing the Court in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819). How did the Court ultimately
answer these questions, and why? What were the implications of McCulloch v. Maryland for the politics of
federalism?
4.
What is the Tenth Amendment? How has it been interpreted by the courts throughout American history?
5.
Compare and contrast enumerated powers and implied powers. Is this distinction appropriate? Explain.
6.
List some of the powers specifically granted to the state governments by the Constitution. List some of the
powers specifically denied the states by the Constitution. Do the powers granted and denied seem wise?
Explain.
7.
What is “full faith and credit,” and why did the Framers believe it was important to the republic?
8.
What questions about federalism are raised by the Defense of Marriage Act of 2002?
9.
Compare and contrast dual federalism and cooperative federalism. What are the standard operating
procedures for cooperative federalism?
10. Define what is meant by “fiscal federalism.” How is it manifested through the federal grant system? What
are the advantages and disadvantages of each of the different types of grants?
11. What means and strategies do the states and communities use to compete with each other for federal
dollars? Under what circumstances might the states and localities not want to receive federal aid?
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12. What is an unfunded mandate?
13. In what ways does federalism decentralize American politics?
14. List three ways that federalism is advantageous for democracy. List three ways that federalism is
disadvantageous for democracy.
15. Explain how the scope of the national government has changed over the course of the twentieth century in
relation to state governments.
Essay Questions
1.
The Framers left the Constitutional Convention with different ideas about federalism. How could this be?
What does the Constitution say about national versus state powers? Which is supreme, the national or the
state governments, and why? Is this appropriate in contemporary America?
2.
Describe how our federal system allocates responsibilities to state and federal governments. Have these
responsibilities changed over time? How has federalism influenced the scope of government?
3.
Why does cooperative federalism, as compared to dual federalism, best describe the American federal
system today? Why is fiscal federalism important to intergovernmental relations?
4.
How and why has federalism contributed to the growth of the national government?
5.
Evaluate federalism as a way of organizing government in America. Could the American system have been
a unitary system? Explain.
6.
How much variation in state level policies—such as that in the area of criminal justice policy—should we
be willing to tolerate? Is it an advantage or disadvantage, for example, that 36 states in the Union permit the
death penalty for first-degree murder, while 14 states permit a maximum penalty of life in prison?
7.
What are the consequences of federalism for policies, participation, and democracy?
8.
What are the advantages and disadvantages to democracy under a federal system? If you were drafting the
Constitution today, would you opt to continue federalism or try something else? Explain.
9.
The Anti-Federalists insisted on a Bill of Rights, in part because they worried that the federal government
under the Constitution would usurp individual rights. Yet, in contemporary America, few citizens would be
comfortable with only state protections for their liberties. What explains this? Are state governments
enough to guard individual freedoms? Why or why not?
10. Given the growth in the scope, size, and strength of the national government since the nation’s founding,
are state governments even relevant? Might states function better simply as administrative units of the
national government? Or, is there a case to be made that states are still necessary to the American political
process?
American Govt 2305
Chapter 3
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