* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Arabic terms Qur`an `to recite`, =direct word of God (perfect, contains
Document related concepts
Arabic terms Qur’an ‘to recite’, =direct word of God (perfect, contains all wisdom, inimitable, miracle) Mushaf Qur’an as physical object Sura chapter of the Qur’an, origin of word uncertain (114, ordered by size) bashmallah ‘in the name of God, the most mercyfull’, beginning of each Sura except Q9 shahada unicity of Allah Aya verse of the Qur’an (total = 6236) juz’ recital part of Quran (total = 30), half = hizb, quarter of hizb = raba hizb fushâ pure Arabic, purest form is found in the Qur’an ‘amiyya dialect Isrâ’ journey of Muhammad to Jerusalem Mir’âj journey of Muhammad to the seven heavens with Gabriel Medina ‘city of the prophet’ (old name = Yithrab) Quraysh tribe of Muhammad futuhat conquests of well-guided caliphs qira’at: seven right readings of the Qur’an (Hafs, from Asim + Warsh, from Nâfi’) Mu’awiya destruction of illegitimate Qur’ans shirk sin of ascribing offspring to Allah kufr people who refuse Gods revelation takdhib liars, don’t believe in the afterlife or in Muhammad as prophet kitab book (also mentioned: Tâwrat, Injil, Zabûr, Hikma and sheets of Abraham and Moses) rashûl function of prophet: to deliver a message from Allah nabî function of prophet: an heir of Abraham Laylat al-qadr the ascension of the Qur’an as celebrated on Ramadan ‘ulûm al-Qur’an Quranic sciences Maghazi genre, descriptions of battles at the time of prophet and companions Sira genre, biographical accounts of prophet and companions (important: Ibn Hishan 845 & Ibn Ishaq 767) Hadieth short accounts on the deeds and words of the prophet and his followers isnad chain of transmission of hadieth matn story or account of hadieth Sunna ‘tradition’, the way of Gods doing (concept) musnad hadieth ordered by transmitters mushannaf hadieth ordered by topic sahih ‘authentic’, hadiethcollections by Bukhari and Muslim muhaddith collectors of hadieth (8th-9th century) I’jâz doctrine of inimitability of Qur’an Tafsir commentary/exegesis (important = Tabari 923) kalâm Islamic theology studying Islamic dogmas Fiqh science of law tajwid science of pronunciation Dates 570 610 612 622 630 birth of Muhammad first revelation at Hira start of Muhammad’s preaching in Mecca Hijra (exile) to Yathrib/Medina (beginning of Muslim calander) Medina = ‘city of the prophet’ surrender by Meccan tribes 632 653 632-661 661-750 7501923 death of Muhammad ‘Uthmânic Codex (Otman and Zayd b. Thâbit) well guided-caliphs (Abu Bakr, Omar, Otman, Ali bin Abu Talib) Umayyad-dynasty (Damascus) Abbasid-dynasty establishment of single Qur’an-version by al-Azhar and King Fuad Persons Muhammad (570-632): the prophet of Allah Khadija: first wife of Muhammad Hafsa: wife of Muhammad, collected revelations of Muhammad ‘Aisha wife of Muhammad, important transmitter in Sunni Islam Ali cousin of Muhammad, important transmitter in Shia Islam Abû Talib: uncle of Muhammad, raised him Abu Bakr: first well-guided caliph (632-634) Omar: second well-guided caliph (634-644) Otman: third well-guided caliph (644-656) Ali bin Abi Talib: fourth well-guided caliph (656-661) Zayd b. Thâbit: collector of Qur’an (others: ‘Ubayy b. Ka’b 642, A’dallah b. Mas’ud 653, Ibm ‘Abbâs 688) Nawawi Zarkashi Suyuti little book of 40 hadieth Burhân, collection of all Quranic sciences in 14th century Itqân, collection of all Quranic sciences in 15th century Michiel Cuypers: semitic rethoric of circular structures in Qur’an (e.g. Q5) Theodor Nöldeke: Geschichte des Qorans John Wansbrough: doubted all traditional Islamic sources Luxenberg: Qur’an was first a Christian book in Syriac language Ignaz Goldziher: started critical evaluation of hadieth Josef Schacht: hadieth growing backwards: the longer the isnad, the older the hadieth Readings Q96 Q77 Q25 Q24 Q33 Q5 first Sura, recite and read form same root different Arabic roots for revelation, Al-Furqân as name for Qur’an, describes polemic between M. and critcs various regulations information on personal life of M., legitimation for adoption of son relation with Christians and Jews.