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Ch.12 Sec.3 “The Cold War Expands” “Do Now” Read the following quote and answer the questions. “A potential aggressor must know that he cannot always prescribe battle conditions to suit him…The way to deter aggression is for the free community to be willing and able to respond vigorously at places and with means of his choosing…you have to take some chances for peace, just as you must take chances in war.” John Foster Dulles, 1954 1) What does the word vigorously mean? 2) Does the quote sound weak, strong, crazy, etc….? What is being stated? 3) Who do you think John Foster Dulles is? What country do you think he is from? 4) How could this quote relate to the idea of brinkmanship? Guided Notes A major shift in balance took pace in the Cold War on September 2nd, ______. American scientists analyzed that the Soviet Union had set off an _______ ______. The news shocked American leaders, who believed that the Soviets were ______ away from developing an atomic bomb. The U.S. no longer had a _____________ in atomic weaponry. The news of a _______________ takeover of China followed shortly there after and Americans sensed the world was a much more dangerous and _____________ place. President Truman ordered the ___________ Energy _________ to produce a __________ bomb. This was predicted to be _____ times as powerful as an A-bomb. Scientists such as ______________ and ________________ opposed this development, as it would lead to a _____________ arms race. Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union stockpiled nuclear weapons over the next four decades. This program of ___________ assured ___________ would prevent either country from actually using nuclear devices __________ the other. Why did the U.S. government decide to build a hydrogen bomb? Dwight ________ took over for Harry S. Truman as American president. He chose _______ Foster _______, as his Secretary of State. Both men had similar foreign policies that compared with those of Truman’s. One major idea or change was the amount of spending on defense. Eisenhower, nicknamed ________ wanted to ______________ nuclear weapons, while Truman spent billions on conventional forces. The national defense budget dropped from $50.5 billion in 19__ to ______ billion in 1955. This policy of _________ ____________ had cut spending dramatically. New technologies created as a result of science and technological developments included a ___________ and __________ in 1946. Also, in 1960 a _________________ was developed. How was Eisenhower’s approach to foreign affairs different for that of Truman’s? ________ ___________ emerged as leader of the communist Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. Both he and Eisenhower met in 1955 in Geneva, Switzerland to work towards a “__________ _______”. The countries of _________ and ____________ revolted against the communist Soviets, even leading to violent acts at the ___________ Games in Australia. Britain and France were involved in the _______ ______, which also involved Gamel Abdel Nasser trying to ____________ the Suez Canal over oil trades. All of this tension in Europe and the Middle East led President Eisenhower to release the __________ ___________ which stated that the U.S. would use force to stop the spread of _____________. Also, the CIA ________ __________ __________ was created and used to protect American interests. Lastly, the creation of _______, __________ __________ and Space _________ was created to coordinate the space-related efforts of American scientists and the military. The program, under the National Defense Education Act was a $___ billion program. How did the Hungarian and Suez crises of 1956 raise Cold War tensions? Whose foreign relations would you agree with the most, Truman or Eisenhower’s? Why so?