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Ch.12 Sec.3 “The Cold War Expands”
“Do Now”  Read the following quote and answer the questions.
“A potential aggressor must know that he cannot always prescribe battle conditions to
suit him…The way to deter aggression is for the free community to be willing and able to
respond vigorously at places and with means of his choosing…you have to take some
chances for peace, just as you must take chances in war.” John Foster Dulles, 1954
1) What does the word vigorously mean?
2) Does the quote sound weak, strong, crazy, etc….? What is being stated?
3) Who do you think John Foster Dulles is? What country do you think he is from?
4) How could this quote relate to the idea of brinkmanship?
Guided Notes
 A major shift in balance took pace in the Cold War on September 2nd,
______. American scientists analyzed that the Soviet Union had set off
an _______ ______.
 The news shocked American leaders, who believed that the Soviets were
______ away from developing an atomic bomb. The U.S. no longer had a
_____________ in atomic weaponry.
 The news of a _______________ takeover of China followed shortly
there after and Americans sensed the world was a much more dangerous
and _____________ place.
 President Truman ordered the ___________ Energy _________ to
produce a __________ bomb. This was predicted to be _____ times as
powerful as an A-bomb.
 Scientists such as ______________ and ________________ opposed this
development, as it would lead to a _____________ arms race.
 Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union stockpiled nuclear weapons over the
next four decades. This program of ___________ assured ___________
would prevent either country from actually using nuclear devices
__________ the other.
 Why did the U.S. government decide to build a hydrogen bomb?
 Dwight ________ took over for Harry S. Truman as American president.
He chose _______ Foster _______, as his Secretary of State. Both men
had similar foreign policies that compared with those of Truman’s.
 One major idea or change was the amount of spending on defense.
Eisenhower, nicknamed ________ wanted to ______________ nuclear
weapons, while Truman spent billions on conventional forces.
 The national defense budget dropped from $50.5 billion in 19__ to
______ billion in 1955. This policy of _________ ____________ had
cut spending dramatically.
 New technologies created as a result of science and technological
developments included a ___________ and __________ in 1946. Also,
in 1960 a _________________ was developed.
 How was Eisenhower’s approach to foreign affairs different for that
of Truman’s?
 ________ ___________ emerged as leader of the communist Soviet
Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. Both he and Eisenhower met in
1955 in Geneva, Switzerland to work towards a “__________ _______”.
 The countries of _________ and ____________ revolted against the
communist Soviets, even leading to violent acts at the ___________
Games in Australia. Britain and France were involved in the _______
______, which also involved Gamel Abdel Nasser trying to
____________ the Suez Canal over oil trades.
 All of this tension in Europe and the Middle East led President
Eisenhower to release the __________ ___________ which stated that
the U.S. would use force to stop the spread of _____________. Also, the
CIA ________ __________ __________ was created and used to
protect American interests.
 Lastly, the creation of _______, __________ __________ and Space
_________ was created to coordinate the space-related efforts of
American scientists and the military. The program, under the National
Defense Education Act was a $___ billion program.
 How did the Hungarian and Suez crises of 1956 raise Cold War
 Whose foreign relations would you agree with the most, Truman or
Eisenhower’s? Why so?