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Biology 232 Summer 2005
Lecture Exam 1
Circle the letter corresponding to the best response. (2 pts each)
1) Which branches of the spinal nerves form plexuses that innervate the limbs?
a. anterior rami
b. posterior rami
c. meningeal branches
d. rami communicantes
2) The shallow grooves on the surface of the cerebrum are
a. commissures
b. tracts
c. sulci
d. gyri
3) The major relay station for sensory impulses traveling to the cerebral cortex is the
a. thalamus
b. midbrain
c. pons
d. cerebellum
4) Transection of the spinal cord at which level results in quadriplegia (paralysis of
all 4 limbs) but allows breathing?
a. C2
b. C6
c. T3
d. T10
5) Which of the following produces hormones and regulates the ANS?
a. midbrain
b. medulla oblongata
c. hypothalamus
d. cerebellum
6) Which cerebral white tracts conduct impulses between the left and right cerebral
a. association tracts
b. projection tracts
c. commissural tracts
d. spinocerebellar tracts
7) Which functional region of the brain serves as the “emotional brain”?
a. limbic system
b. corpora quadrigemina
c. common association area
d. reticular activating system
8) The cerebral hemispheres develop from which embryonic vesicle?
a. mesencephalon
b. rhombencephalon
c. myelencephalon
d. telencephalon
9) Which is NOT part of the peripheral nervous system?
a. spinal nerves
b. diencephalon
c. thermoreceptors
d. sympathetic trunk ganglia
10) Which neurons carry impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle?
a. first-order neurons
b. somatic sensory neurons
c. somatic motor neurons
d. autonomic motor neurons
11) Damage to which of the following regions would be most likely to cause jerky,
uncoordinated movements of the limbs?
a. cerebellum
b. temporal lobe
c. postcentral gyrus
d. cauda equina
12) Which neuroglia myelinate axons of the PNS?
a. astrocytes
b. Schwann cells
c. oligodendrocytes
d. microglia
13) Which statement is correct regarding resting membrane potential?
a. The Na+/K+ pump moves potassium out of the cell.
b. The membrane is highly permeable to sodium.
c. The inside of the neuron is less negative than the outside.
d. The membrane is polarized.
14) Which does NOT contain neuronal cell bodies?
a. autonomic ganglia
b. spinal nerve
c. cerebral cortex
d. anterior gray horn
15) In the ANS, the term “dual innervation” refers to innervation by
a. sensory and motor neurons
b. somatic and autonomic neurons
c. preganglionic and postganglionic neurons
d. sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons
16) Atropine blocking activation of muscarinic receptors by ACh is an example of a/an
a. agonist
b. inhibitory potential
c. antagonist
d. mimic
17) Which of the following contributes to the sympathetic response by releasing
neurotransmitters into the bloodstream as hormones?
a. adrenal gland
b. autonomic plexus
c. choroid plexus
d. postganglionic neurons
18) Which of the following is associated with the parasympathetic division?
a. increased GI functions
b. rapid, widespread effects
c. prevertebral ganglia
d. thoracolumbar
19) The channels responsible for propagating an action potential down an axon are
a. leakage channels
b. voltage-gated channels
c. ligand-gated channels
d. mechanically-gated channels
20) Which statement is correct regarding graded potentials?
a. They are all-or-none responses.
b. They may be hyperpolarizing or depolarizing.
c. They are propagated for long distances on axons.
d. In specialized sensory receptor cells they are called generator potentials.
21) Nerve impulses are conducted fastest by
a. large-diameter, unmyelinated axons
b. small-diameter, myelinated axons
c. small-diameter, unmyelinated axons
d. large-diameter, myelinated axons
22) Which term is related to an electrical synapse?
a. neurotransmitter
b. gap junction
c. synaptic delay
d. receptor
23) In which neural circuits do nerve impulses from a single neuron cause stimulation
of increasing numbers of neurons?
a. converging circuits
b. excitatory circuits
c. diverging circuits
d. simple series circuits
24) Extensions of which spinal meninx form the denticulate ligaments?
a. dura mater
b. arachnoid mater
c. pia mater
d. conus medullaris
25) Which of the following is associated with the sympathetic division?
a. long preganglionic axons
b. craniosacral
c. decreased heart rate
d. adrenergic receptors
26) A spinal tap is normally performed in which vertebral space?
a. epidural space
b. subdural space
c. subarachnoid space
d. fourth ventricle
27) Which neuroglial cells surround the brain capillaries and help to form the
blood-brain barrier?
a. astrocytes
b. satellite cells
c. microglial cells
d. oligodendrocytes
28) Where is the integrating center of the stretch reflex arc?
a. dorsal root ganglion
b. anterior gray horn
c. muscle spindle
d. cerebral cortex
29) Which term does NOT apply to the crossed-extensor reflex?
a. ipsilateral
b. polysynaptic
c. intersegmental
d. spinal reflex
30) Which connective tissue layer is the outermost covering of the peripheral nerves?
a. dura mater
b. endoneurium
c. perineurium
d. epineurium
31) Which does NOT participate in protecting the brain?
a. corpus callosum
b. blood-brain barrier
c. cranial meninges
d. cerebrospinal fluid
32) The cerebrum surrounds which space containing CSF?
a. lateral ventricle
b. central canal
c. subarachnoid space
d. third ventricle
33) Where is cerebrospinal fluid reabsorbed into the blood?
a. choroid plexuses
b. cerebral aqueduct
c. dural venous sinuses
d. fourth ventricle
34) Which region of the brain contains reflex centers for eye movements that occur
while you are reading this sentence?
a. mammillary bodies
b. superior colliculi
c. intermediate mass
d. apneustic area
35) The arbor vitae is the
a. vital center of the medulla
b. cerebral commissural tract
c. white matter of the cerebellum
d. reticular activating system
36) The dura mater does NOT form the
a. tentorium cerebelli
b. superior sagittal sinus
c. falx cerebri
d. choroid plexuses
37) Which sensory receptors are found in muscles, tendons, and the inner ear?
a. chemoreceptors
b. exteroceptors
c. thermoreceptors
d. proprioceptors
38) Which receptor detects the tactile modality?
a. nociceptor
b. muscle spindle
c. Pacinian corpuscle
d. cold receptor
39) Which is NOT involved in a direct motor pathway to your right hand?
a. right primary motor area
b. upper motor neuron
c. lower motor neuron
d. pyramids of medulla
40) Damage to which region of the cerebrum would be most likely to result in
a. parietal lobe
b. frontal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. occipital lobe
41) Which sensory neurons are found in the spinal and cranial nerves?
a. first-order neurons
b. second-order neurons
c. third-order neurons
d. cerebellar neurons
42) Which is NOT associated with fast pain sensations?
a. nociceptors
b. unmyelinated axons
c. sharp pain
d. superficial pain
43) Match the following with the associated cranial nerve. (1 pt each)
_____ dilating pupil of eye
_____ smell
_____ heart rate
_____ equilibrium
_____ smiling
_____ toothache
1. olfactory
2. optic
3. oculomotor
4. trochlear
5. trigeminal
6. abducens
7. facial
8. vestibulocochlear
9. glossopharyngeal
10. vagus
11. accessory
12. hypoglossal
44) Match the following with the associated nervous system. (1 pt each)
_____ muscle spindles
_____ conscious perception
_____ lower motor neurons
_____ hypothalamus
_____ osmoreceptors
_____ biceps brachii
_____ norepinephrine
_____ primary sensory area
_____ smooth muscle
_____ postganglionic neurons
A. autonomic nervous system
B. somatic nervous system