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Transcript

Module – 1: Introduction of measurements and measurement systems: Significance of measurements, different methods of measurements, Instruments used in measurements, Electronic Instruments and its classification, Elements of a Generalized Measurement System. Characteristics of instruments, Static characteristics, Errors in measurements, scale, range, and scale span, calibration, Reproducibility and drift, Noise, Accuracy and precision, Significant figures, Linearity, Hysteresis, Threshold, Dead time, Dead zone, Resolution and Loading Effects. Module – 1: 1. Define Measurement and its significance in measurement? 2. What are different methods of measurement? Write down its advantages and limitations. 3. Define Instrument, and it’s the classification on the basis of difference approach. 4. Describe the difference between deflection and null type Instrument by giving suitable examples. Discuss their accuracy, sensitivity and suitability for dynamic measurement. 5. What are the basic blocks of a generalized Instrumentation system? Draw the various blocks and explain their functions. 6. Define the term “True Value”. Explain why it is not practically possible to know the true value of a quantity. 7. Explain the term (i) Static error, (ii) Static correction, (iv) Percentage relative error. 8. Differentiate between the terms “Scale range” and “Scale span” by giving suitable example. 9. What is drift? What are the different types of drift? How it is related to reproducibility? 10. Define noise. Explain (i) Johnson noise, (ii) Short noise, noise, (iv) Noise factor and (v) Noise figure. (iii) Relative error, (iii) White 11. Explain (i) Repeatability, (ii) Accuracy, (iii) Precision, (iv) Static sensitivity, (v) Resolution, (vi) Linearity, Explain all with examples. 12. What is the difference between accuracy and precision? 13. A voltage has a true value of 1.50V. An analog indicating instrument with a scale range of 0-2.5V shows a voltage of 1.46V. What is the absolute error and its correction. Express the error as a fraction of the true value and full scale deflection (f.s.d.). 14. A digital voltmeter has a read-out range from 0 – 9999 counts. Determine the resolution of the instruments in volts when the full scale reading is 9.999V. 15. Explain the significant figure with example. 16. Three registers have values of 52.7 ohm 8.35 ohm and 3.125 ohm respectively with an uncertainty of one unit in the last figure, in each case. Find out the resistance when three are connected is series and parallel respectively. 17. Explain the phenomena of hysteresis in measurement system with neat diagram. 18. Explain Deal Zone and Backlash with neat diagram and suitable example. 19. What is loading effect? What are the causes of loading effect? 20. A 0 – 100V voltmeter has 200 scale division which can be read to ½ division. Determine the resolution of the meter in volt. 21. A diaphragm type pressure measuring instrument is calibrated for absolute pressures of 6 to 760 mm of mercury. It has an accuracy of + 1 % based upon the scale span, calculate the scale range, scale span and maximum static error. 22. A current of 2.56 A is flowing in a resistance of 45.73 Ohm. Each quantity has an uncertainty of one unit in the last digit. Find the voltage drop to appropriate number of significant figure. 23. What is the true value of current in the 15 Kohm register in the figure below? If an ammeter of 2 Kohm resistance is used to measure the current in the 15 Kohm resistor, What will it read. If a loading accuracy of 99% is desired in measuring the current, What should the ammeter resistance will be? 10KΩ 5 KΩ 5 KΩ 10V 10KΩ 10KΩ 15KΩ