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Word Definitions
Secular Words
Denotative is a direct specific meaning as distinct from an implied or associated idea & the totality of
things to which a term is applicable especially in logic. (Denotative is specific and does not allow for
Connotative is something suggested by a word or thing & is the implication of a word or phase in
addition to its literal meaning &, the suggesting of a meaning by a word apart from the thing it
explicitly names or describes. (Connotative is less specific and therefore allows for greater
Deductive reasoning is reasoning from the general to the specific. Making a prediction based on a
theory involves deductive reasoning.
Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from the specific to the general. For example, drawing
conclusions about all members of a category of concept based on only some of the members is
inductive reasoning.
Basic Types of Reasoning
In Logic, Deductive Reasoning is a process, of reasoning in which reasons are given in support of a
claim. The reasons, or justifications, are called the premises of the claim, and the claim they purport to
justify is called the conclusion. In a correct, or valid, deduction the premises support the conclusion in
such a way that it would be impossible for the premises to be true and for the conclusion to be false.
In Logic, Inductive Reasoning is a process, of drawing a conclusion in which the truth of the premises
does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion. The process of drawing a conclusion about an object or
event that has yet to be observed or occur, a speculated conclusion on the basis of previous
observations of similar objects or events.
Reasoning involves transforming information to reach a conclusion.
generating arguments to reach a conclusion.
It includes evaluating and
Logical reasoning includes mental procedures that yield valid conclusions. Formal tasks have been
developed that measure logical reasoning. Two such tasks are syllogisms and analogies.
Syllogisms are arguments made up of two propositions, called premises, and a conclusion
based on these premises. They require deductive reasoning. For example, is the following
reasoning valid? “All cats are animals.” All cats have four legs.” “Therefore, all animals have
four legs.” No, the reasoning is not valid. There are some animals that do not have four legs.
Analogies are a type of reasoning task that is always made up of four parts. The reasoning
between the first two parts is same as the reasoning between the last two. Analogies require
inductive reasoning. For example, “Light is to dark as summer is to _________.” Light is the
opposite of dark; therefore, summer is the opposite of winter.
Philosophic Reasoning
Reason is a way of thinking characterized by logic, analysis, and synopsis. It is often contrasted with
emotionalism, which is thinking driven by desire, passion, or prejudice.
Reason attempts to discover what is true and what is best. Reason often follows a chain of cause and
effect, and the word "reason" can be a synonym for "cause".
The concept of the word “reason,” is closely related to the concept of language. Our English word
“reason” is derived from the French word “raison,” which is based upon the Latin word “ratio,” which
is a translation of the Greek word “logic” which is the root for the Greek word “logos,” which is Greek
for “word.”
Logic is the study of the principles of valid inference and demonstration. The field of logic ranges
from core topics such as the study of validity, fallacies, and paradoxes, to specialized analysis of
reasoning using probability into the arguments involving causality.
Form is central to logic. There are two forms of basic logic; formal and informal.
Informal logic is the study of natural language arguments, of which the study of fallacies is
especially important. The dialogues of Plato are a good example of informal logic.
Formal logic is the study of inference with purely formal content, where that contact is made
explicit. The works of Aristotle contain the earliest known formal study of logic.
Symbolic logic is the study of symbolic abstractions that capture the formal features of logical
inference and is divided into two branches; propositional logic and predicate logic.
Mathematical logic is an extension of symbolic logic in other areas, in particular the study of
model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Formal logic is often used as a
synonym for symbolic logic.
Among the valuable properties that logical systems can have are:
Consistency, which means that none of the theorems of the system contradict one another.
Soundness, which means that the system’s rules of proof will never allow for a false inference
from a true premise. If a system is sound and its axioms are true, then it’s theorems are also
guaranteed to be true.
Completeness, which means that there are no true instances in the system that cannot, at least
in principle, be proved in the system.
The Pareto principle (also known as the 80-20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of
factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.
Business management thinker Joseph M. Juran suggested the principle and named it after Italian
economist Vilfredo Pareto, who observed in 1906 that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of
the population. It is a common rule of thumb in business; e.g., "80% of your sales come from 20% of
your clients."
Determinations of Professional Conduct
Fiduciary is a person who has a legal and ethical duty to act in the best interests of another person.
Examples include an executor or a guardian.
Duty of Care is a legal obligation (in tort law) on an individual requiring that they adhere to a
reasonable standard of care while performing any acts that could foreseeable harm others.
Nonfeasance is the failure to do what ought to be done.
Misfeasance is performing an illegal act in an illegal or improper manner (such as, saying there is a
fire in a public place. Free speech is a constitutional right and a legal act, but creating danger by
generating fear through falsehood, is illegal).
Malfeasance is wrongdoing or misconduct, especially by a public official.
An example: a company hires a catering company to provide drinks and food for a retirement party. If
the catering company doesn't show up, it's considered nonfeasance. If the catering company shows up
but only provides drinks (and not the food, which was also paid for), it's considered misfeasance. If
the catering company accepts a bribe from a competitor to undercook meat and give those present food
poisoning, it's considered malfeasance.
Malpractice is a type of tort in which the nonfeasance, misfeasance, or malfeasance of a professional,
under a duty to act, fails to follow generally accepted professional standards, and that breach of duty is
the proximate cause of injury to a plaintiff who suffers damages. This is an individual who has
breached they are the fiduciary responsibility.
Empathy vs. Symphony
When you feel sympathy for someone you feel sorry for their pain.
When you feel empathy you are feeling the pain too (normally having been there yourself).
Acknowledgement of another's painful feelings.
Mutual feelings of pain between people.
Empathy can only be felt when you have experienced the same as the person you are empathizing example...if a parent loses a child but you have can only sympathize with that
person...if you have lost a child too you can then empathize with that person.
Sympathy is an affinity, association, or relationship between persons or things wherein whatever
affects one similarly affects the other (the key word here being similarly, meaning you've never
experienced it so you can't know how they are feeling, your just assuming).
Empathy is the action of understanding, being aware of, being sensitive to, and vicariously
experiencing the feelings, thoughts, and experience of another of either the past or present without
having the feelings, thoughts, and experience fully communicated in an objectively explicit manner;
also : the capacity for this
As both words contain the Greek root "path," they both deal with "feelings."
Sympathy is "imagining someone's pain" and empathy is "feeling someone's pain." In both cases, you
are relating to someone else, but those words are NOT synonyms! Sympathy is a much more common
feeling because we are not as likely to have experienced the same difficult situation as someone else.
For instance (thank God and knock on wood), I have never gone through chemotherapy, sent a loved
one to war, etc., but I definitely feel sympathy for those who have. That's why "sympathy cards" exist
and not "empathy cards."
Oxymoron is a self-contradictory word. Such as Jumbo shrimp, or icy hot, (Humorously: military
intelligence, academic freedom, compassionate conservative, born again liberal, good man,
inexpensive child, submissive wife, and giving husband)
Reciprocity is the principle of sowing and reaping, a naturalistic belief.
Syncretism is the mixing of beliefs that appose each other due to there very makeup.
Theological Words
Expositional Preaching is a form of preaching that is also referred to as systematic exposition, and a
majority of the time covers a complete book of the Bible. It is known for expounding upon the
meaning of a particular text or passage of Scripture. Expositional preaching is contrasted to topical
Topical Preaching is a form of preaching that concentrates on a specific topic and references
Scriptures covering the topic.
Exegesis (Greek: "to lead out") involves an extensive and critical interpretation of the text. Exegetical
study carefully considers the linguistics of the text.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, encompassing a number of sub fields. An important
topical division is between the study of language structure (grammar), and the study of meaning
(semantics). More simply understood, grammar is the structure of what something says; while
semantics is the interpretation of what something means.
Grammar encompasses:
Morphology (the formation & composition of words) Syntax (the rules
that determine how words combine into phrases & sentences)
Phonology (the study of sound systems and abstract sound units)
Semantics is:
Devoted to the study of meaning; inherent at the levels of words,
phrases, sentences, and even larger units of discourse (referred to as texts).
Semantics considers the denotative usage (literal), and the connotative usage
(figurative) inherent within expression. A formal semantic view restricts
interpretations to being denotative, and regulates all connotative associations to
pragmatics, but this distinction is in question. The degree to which the theorists
ascribes to the literal-figurative distinction decreases as one moves from the
formal semantic, semiotic, pragmatic, to the cognitive semantic traditions.
Exegesis and hermeneutics are not interchangeable; the distinctions are:
Exegesis is the interpretation and understanding of a text on the basis of the text itself,
according to its linguistics, which is made up of two areas: grammar and semantics.
Hermeneutic is a practical application of a certain method or theory of interpretation, often
revolving around the contemporary relevance of the text in question.
Major Divisions of Christian Theology
The type or means by how one studies God is where the diversity comes in. The following are a few
examples are:
Exegetical Theology is based on biblical interpretation; this theology concerns the study of the
Scripture text. This division includes the study of biblical languages, biblical archaeology, biblical
introduction, biblical theology, and Bible hermeneutics. Biblical theology seeks to arrange
systematically the truth revealed within the various periods of the Old Testament (such as the Mosaic
period, the Monarchal period) and in the writings of the New Testament authors (such as the writing of
John, the writings of Paul).
Historical Theology is based on the history of doctrine thought; this theology traces the origin,
development, and spread of true Christian religion together with its doctrines, institutions, and
practices. It covers biblical history, church history, the history of missions, the history of doctrine, and
the history of creeds and confessions.
Systematic Theology is derived from exegetical and historical theology; this arranges the Bible’s
teachings and man’s explanation of them in logical order under the heads of theological study. In
addition to the systematic arrangement of doctrine, this division also includes Christian apologetics,
polemics, and ethnics.
Practical Theology consists of the practical applications of theology; this seeks to use that which is
contributed by the other divisions of Christian theology in the salvation, sanctification, edification,
education, and services of the gospels believer. This division comprises homiletics, church
organization and administration, worship, Christian education, the work of missions, and pastoral
Biblical Theology is that branch of theological science which deals systematically with the historically
conditioned progress of revelation as deposited in the Bible, it has four major characteristics. (Ryrie)
1) It is systematic.
2) It pays careful attention to the fact that revelation was embodied in history.
3) It concerns the progressiveness of revelation.
4) Its source of doctrine is the Bible.
Word Definitions - Theological Words
Logos (Greek) means speech, word, reason, discourse, communication, expression, or doctrine (which means teaching).
Logy (a derivative of Logos) means oral or written expression; or doctrine, or science (which means to know by studying).
The suffix ”o“ stands for of, and the suffix logy for study; thus, ology added to a word means the study of that word.
Is the study of angels.
Is the study of man.
Anthropomorphism Is describing human attributes to nonhuman things, using emotion type words or
human characteristics in describing God’s motivations, actions, or His very
being, (noun). Anthropomorphize is the verb.
(Greek) anti (against) nomos (law), & refers to the doctrine that it is not
necessary for Christians to preach and/or obey the moral law of the OT.
In linguistics, an apodosis is the main clause in a conditional sentence. For
example in a sentence of the form, “If X, then Y”, the apodosis is Y (expressing
the conclusion). A Protasis is the subordinate clause (the if-clause) in a
conditional sentence. For example in a sentence of the form, "if X, then Y", the
protasis is ...
Is a branch within theology that presents a defense concerning the validity of
Christian as truth, and it’s doctrines as legitimate primarily in a deductive
systematic manner. (Greek: apologia, “to make a defense”)
"Sent with delegated authority"
Is the study of how people come to Christ.
Is the study of the Bible.
Is the fact that all Scripture are Christ centered (John 5:39).
Is the study of Christ.
Is the pre-incarnate appearances (O.T.) of Jesus.
Is the study of the universe in regards to causality, its ultimate cause.
Is the study of demons.
"Slanderer" ("accuser of the brethren" Revelation 12:10)
Is the study of the church.
Is the study of knowledge, how we know things, its scope and limits.
Is the study of future prophetic events.
Is the study of cultures.
Is the study of the cause or origin of a disease.
Is the study of the origin of words or linguistics.
Is an in-depth systematic examination of a text. (Greek: “to draw out”)
Plain Meaning: Is the study of what the scripture means.
Technically: In the process of exegesis, a passage must be viewed in its
historical and grammatical context with its time/purpose of writing taken into
account. This is often accommodated by asking:
 Who wrote the text, and who is the intended readership?
 What is the context of the text, i.e. how does it fit in the author's larger
thought process, purpose, or argument in the chapter and book where it
 Is the choice of words, wording, or word order significant in this particular
 Why was the text written (e.g. to correct, encourage, or explain, etc.)?
 When was the text written? (Theopedia) ~ Exegetical
Is A kind of preaching that expounds upon the meaning of a particular text .
Plain Meaning: Is the study of what the scripture says. ~ Expository
Is all about how our actions have consequences that will affect us.
"to suffer, or make up for, a wrongdoing"
“Taking God at His Word”
“To remove a burden”
“Without a Cause” (Greek: dorean) ~ (John 15:3), a gift without reason.
“Unmerited Favor,” (Getting what is not deserved – something good).
Is the study of sin.
Is an opinion or doctrine held in complete opposition to an Orthodox position
which undermines a foundational truth concerning an essential belief.
Is a branch of theology that deals with principles of in-depth (exegesis ~ see
below), systematic examination in order to determine the intended meaning of a
passage of Scripture through specific principles of interpretation.
Plain Meaning: is a study of the methods and techniques of biblical
interpretation. ~ Hermeneutical
Is any opinion or doctrine at variances with what is considered an orthodox
position, yet does not undermine a foundational truth concerning an essential
Pertaining to people who do not follow the teachings of their religion.
Is the personal application of a passage of Scripture to the believer’s life.
"To put on account"
Is the study of Israel (As God’s instrument)
“The Standard of its Own Character, Absolute Righteousness.”
“Declared Legally Without Guilt,” as righteous, instantaneous.
Is Greek for "study" or "science."
“Sacrificially Putting Someone Else First.”
"The morning star" ("son of the morning" ~ Isaiah 14:12) - an epithet of the
planet Venus
“Unmerited Favor,” (Not getting what is deserved – something bad).
“All Powerful, Visible & Invisible.”
“Existing Everywhere All at Once, Non-locality.”
“All Knowing”
Is an argument for the existence of God based upon the meaning of
the term God.
Means: “Right Opinion,” or “Correct Thinking”, and is understood as the
accepted or traditional historic Christian faith, made up of its doctrines.
(“Theology Proper”) is the study of God the father.
Is the belief that there was no original sin, Adam didn’t fall, and man can work
out his own salvation.
"A Separated One"
Is the study of God the Holy Spirit.
"one who speaks for another" ~ "interpreter" (As per Dr. William Smith [1884],
"The English word, 'prophet' comes from the Greek prophetes (profetes)
[G4396], which signifies, in classical Greek, one who speaks for another,
especially one who speaks for a god, and so interprets his will to man; hence,
it’s essential meaning is "an interpreter". The use of the word in its modern
sense is "one who predicts" is post-classical. The larger sense of interpretation
has not, however, been lost. In fact, the English word has been used in a closer
"Covering" (Greek: hilasterion), “the lid of expiation,” (Greek: epithema "a
cover") from the Hebrew: kapporet (Exo. 25:10-22; Lev. 16:2; Heb. 9:2-10). It
is the greatest word of love in Scripture, because it displays how far God would
go to redeem man by covering man's sin. Sin cannot be simply forgotten, or just
set aside. Sin is opposition to God and His Will, & cannot be tolerated. God's
justice could not allow sin to go without punishment, man took himself out from
under God's protection when he chose to NOT obey; because of his lack of faith
in God (we obey because we trust God - it is only natural to obey God if we trust
what He says - only a fool sticks his hand in fire after God has warned him of
the harm, obedience is the natural fruit of faith. Faith should be our
motivation, & it is our motivation that God is concerned with - obedience for the
sake of obedience [such as Pharisees], can be manipulation, yet obedience
because of faith sets up a relationship, which is what God wants), this is what
Adam gave up, a relationship based upon faith. Being part of God's family
means God protects & covers us; and after man's fall, this covering was
withdrawn,* yet now through faith in Jesus' atoning death on the cross, having
paid the price for our sin, we are adopted back into God's family, and made
righteous by Christ's blood. God's covering of man's sin cost Him the most
valuable thing in existence, the life of His Son. This is the price of our
covering, & proof of God's love. (* God always protects His Own, which
includes before they respond in faith, God is always the Master of His Creation,
He is Supreme in all, thus His covering does not mean others are without
"Freed by a ransom having been paid” (A market slave)
(1 John 5:19; John 12:31; Eph 2:2,3; Col 2:14; Heb 2:14, 15; 1 Pet 1:18,19)
"To set aside"
"Adversary," (Greek: satanas): from the verb (Hebrew: saTan): "to lie in wait"
(herban ~ Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7)
Is the belief that man did not totally fall, Adam didn’t fall all the way, and man
can still work in his salvation.
“To miss the mark” (Greek: hamarthia [G266], is literally " missing the mark")
Is the study of salvation.
“Accountable only to Himself.”
Is the study of the meaning, goal & purpose of the world.
Is the Hebrew Scripture (OT), made up of the “Torah” (the “Law”), the
“Prophets,” & the “Writings” (Hebrew: Tanakh)
Is a form of government which god is recognized as the civil ruler.
Is a system of natural theology aimed at seeking to reconcile divine justice (a
good God) and allowing evil to exist (the existence of evil in the world).
Is the study of God (Greek: “Theos”).
Theology Proper
Is the study of the doctrine of God.
Is a system of natural theology that reconciles divine justice & evil in world.
Is a theological term used to refer to either a visible or auditory manifestation of
Is a Hebrew title for the five books written by Moses. Literally: "the law", "the
teachings or statutes." In the Greek the "Torah," is called the Pentateuch,
meaning: "five" concerning
Numbers, and
The act of conveying the meaning of a word in one language by producing the
same meaning in another language. The primary goal is that of transmission of
meaning only, not the word itself or the use of the original word alphabet; hence,
the translation is not about spelling, but meaning.
The representation of letters from one language alphabet (written symbols) to
another language alphabet. Whereas, translation deals with conveying meaning,
transliteration has to do with reproducing words. Due to this, doing
transliteration can become complicated. Wikipedia gives a good explanation as
follows: "Transliteration is the practice of converting a text from one writing
system into another, systematically. From an information-theoretical point of
view transliteration is a mapping from one system of writing into another, word
by word, or ideally letter by letter. Transliteration attempts to use a one-to-one
correspondence, and to be exact, so that an informed reader should be able to
reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. To achieve
that objective, transliteration may define complex conventions for dealing with
letters in the source script [which do not exist in the other language], which do
not correspond with letters in a goal script. Transliteration is opposed to
transcription, which specifically maps the sounds of one language to the best
matching script of another language. Most systems of transliteration attempt to
map the letters of the source script to the letters pronounced similarly in the goal
script. [part of the problem is that many language alphabets do not have
corresponding letters that match with other language alphabets], the Greek
language is written in the 24-letter Greek alphabet, which overlaps with, but
differs from, the 26 letter version of the Roman alphabet, in which English is
written" (Wikipedia). An example of the problem can be seen as follows: In
the Anglo-Saxon language there is a letter ∂ (it would be pronounced "eth" in
English), which does not exist in Modern English. To transliterate this letter, we
use the digraph <th>. Therefore, when we write out the Anglo-Saxon
word, "∂aes," when it is transliterated, it would be thaes in English.
“Crossing over the line”
"Ox - First - Leader " (first letter of the Hebrew alphabet)
"Gentile - Nations "
"Mercy Seat"
(last letter of the Hebrew alphabet)
"Trips Others - Heel Catcher"
(Tau) (Alph)
(Was-Is-Will Be) - “I AM”
El Shaddai – “The Almighty”
Meshiach - “Messiah”
Yeshua – “Jesus”
Let it be so (is used in connection with what God has said, it is a word of faith [trust] in God)
The Messiah
The Messiah
The King (not Prince, used of King Saul, he never was a Prince)
River of Judgement
The King
Sons of God
The Fallen Ones
Daughters of Adam
Hear O-Israel Lord God
Lord One
Bar & Ben
Son (of)
Crossed over (ones)
(first letter of the Greek alphabet)
"Eagerly Await"
"Bond Slave"
May Genoito
"Free Gift without a Cause" (John 15:3)
"Receive – Notice – Discern - Discover"
"Gentile - Nations"
"Snatched - Caught up by force"
"Lid of Expiration"
"Adult Son"
"Reward for Faithfulness"
"Oracles - Divine Utterances - Promises"
"Let It Be So"
(Last letter of Greek alphabet)
"Tutor – Guardian - Schoolmaster"
"Least - Little"
"Works Together"
"Born One"
"Paid in Full"
(Alpha) (Omega)
I Am
Dusty One
Tetélestai (Tă-tĕl-ĕs-tă-ī)
Paid in full. (KJV translates it, “It is finished”)
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