SUFFOLK COMMUNITY COLLEGE Grant Campus BIO132 Anatomy & Physiology II Spring, 2015 Minimum Objectives I The student should be able to: 1. Compare and contrast the endocrine and nervous systems in terms of their integrative activities, i.e. communication and control. 2. Discuss the functions of growth hormone (GH) and the tropic hormones TSH, LH, FSH, and ACTH (corticotropin). 3. Describe the structural and functional continuity between the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. 4. Explain the neuroendocrine functions of the hypothalamus. 5. Summarize the actions of thyroxin, parathyroid hormone, insulin, glucagon, and the adrenal cortical and medullary hormones: aldosterone, cortisol and cortisone; epinephrine and norepinephrine. 6. Describe how hormone secretion is controlled by negative feedback. 7. Summarize the consequences of: a. hypothyroidism in children; hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease). b. hypo- and hypersecretion of growth hormone in children. c. diabetes mellitus. d. diabetes insipidus. e. hypoparathyroidism. f. Addison’s disease (adrenal cortical insufficiency). 8. Describe the following constituents of the blood and their functions: a. erythrocytes (RBCs) b. leukocytes (WBCs) c. platelets (thrombocytes) d. plasma (in terms of its organic and inorganic components) 9. Define: anemia, polycythemia, erythropoietin, hypoxia, leukocytosis and leukopenia. 10. Outline the mechanical and chemical changes involved in blood clotting (coagulation) following an externally caused injury. 11. Define: coagulation time, hemophilia, fibrinolysin (plasmin), streptokinase, and tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). 12. Analyze the ABO blood groups as to possible donor-recipient interactions; define agglutinogen and agglutinin;; explain Rh disease (HDN). SUFFOLK COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Grant Campus BIO132 Anatomy & Physiology II Spring, 2015 Minimum Objectives II The student should be able to: 1. active Define antigen and antibody; differentiate between natural and artificial immunization, and passive and immunity. 2. Describe the immune response; specific and nonspecific immunity, inflammation, migration (diapedesis), chemotaxis, leukocytosis, phagocytosis, antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI). 3. Label a diagram showing the basic structure of the heart, including its chambers, valves, and great vessels. 4. Discuss the importance of the pericardium, the coronary arteries, and the anastomoses (intercommunication) between coronary vessels. 5. Identify the various components of the cardiac conduction system and discuss the timing of cardiac impulses. 6. List the steps of cardiac cycle, including a description of the flow circuits through the heart, the pressure changes involved, valve changes, and the sequence of atrial and ventricular systole and diastole. 7. Describe the components of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is and how they relate to mechanical events. 8. Define arrhythmia; be able to identify tachycardia, bradycardia, atrial and ventricular fibrillation, and complete (third-degree) heart block in a sample ECG. 9. Define: coronary thrombosis, ischemia, and myocardial infarct. 10. Describe the control of cardiac function by the autonomic nerves, including the chemical transmitters involved. 11. Define cardiac output and Starling's law of the heart; write and explain the cardiac output equation. 12. Write and explain the equation expressing the relationship between cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood (hydrostatic) pressure. 13. Discuss the changes in heart rate, stroke volume and blood pressure during exercise. 14. Explain the structural and functional differences between the various types of blood vessels; describe how fluid exchange occurs through capillaries. 15. Explain by what mechanisms blood pressure is regulated; define hypertension and describe its major consequences; suggest hypertension treatment strategies. 16. Define circulatory shock and describe what measures the body takes to compensate for it. 17. Comment on the significance of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in relation to atherosclerosis. 18. Explain the major functions of the lymphatic vessels; describe the origin, flow and composition of lymph; cite two functions of the lymph nodes and spleen. SUFFOLK COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Grant Campus BIO132 Anatomy & Physiology II Spring, 2015 Minimum Objectives III The student should be able to: 1. Discuss the anatomy of the conducting and gas–exchanging divisions of the respiratory system. 2. Comment on the "air conditioning" function of the nasal, oral, and tracheobronchial mucosa. 3. Describe the significance of the anatomical relationship between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries. 4. List the features a respiratory membrane must have to effect gas exchange. 5. Explain the mechanics of breathing, including: a. the roles of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles in the development of a pressure gradient between b. c. intrapulmonic and atmospheric air. how inspiration and expiration occur. the gas laws. 6. Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the lungs and bloodstream and between blood and tissues; define partial pressure (e.g. PO2) as used in respiratory physiology; explain the relationship between PO2 and oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin. 7. Outline the mechanism by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported within the bloodstream. 8. are Write an equation for the reaction of CO2 and water in the bloodstream and justify the statement that the lungs important regulators of acid-base balance. 9. it is Describe the central control of respiration, including the cyclical activity of the inspiratory center and how modified, and the effect of the expiratory center. 10. Describe the peripheral control of respiration, including the role of: a. chemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies. b. vagal stretch receptors in the lungs. 11. Describe the functions of the tongue, teeth and oral mucosa in the digestive process. 12. Explain the functions of the salivary glands and how they are controlled via autonomic nerves. 13. List the series of events which characterize voluntary swallowing and the swallowing reflex. 14. Describe the four basic tissue layers of the digestive tract wall and their general functions. 15. Describe specific anatomical and physiologic adaptations of the esophagus to digestion. 16. Discuss how the following affect gastric motility: a) volume of food in the stomach b) the chemical composition of chyme in the duodenum c) secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin. Optional 17. List the components of gastric juice and the significance of each. 18. Comment on how the stomach protects itself from both enzymatic auto-digestion and the effects of hydrochloric acid. 19. Outline the mechanisms which control gastric secretion. a) hormonal: the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases, and the importance of gastrin, secretin and CCK; b) neural: the intrinsic (enteric) and extrinsic nerves. 20. Summarize the gross and microscopic features of the small and large intestines and how they relate to digestive physiology. 21. Discuss the breakdown of proteins, fats (triglycerides), and carbohydrates in the small intestine and the particular hydrolytic enzymes involved. 22. Describe the absorption of nutrients into the mucosa of the small intestine. 23. Outline liver structure and its digestive functions with respect to: a) bile production and control of its release from the gallbladder. b) glucose and glycogen; gluconeogenesis. c) the production of plasma proteins and urea. d) lipid metabolism. 24. Describe the structure and secretions of the exocrine pancreas; explain how the delivery of pancreatic juice to the duodenum is controlled. 25. Discuss the actions of glucagon and insulin with regard to the regulation of blood glucose; explain what is meant by glucose tolerance. 26. Compare and contrast the absorptive and post-absorptive states as to the primary source of metabolic, i.e. caloric, energy. 27. Describe the concept of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and how thyroid hormone is implicated in cellular respiration and BMR; discuss the relationship between oxygen consumed and calories liberated. 28. Discuss the importance of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E and K and their major sources; comment on the water-soluble vs. fat-soluble vitamins regarding absorption and storage. 29. Describe the importance of the following minerals: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and iodine (I). 30. Discuss the importance of dietary protein and the protein Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) which encompass the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Comment on how the RDA are established and how they are influenced by age, activity level, and pregnancy. Distinguish between essential and nonessential amino acids and complete and incomplete protein; identify sources of dietary protein and explain what is meant by complementary protein combinations. Contrast macronutrients and micronutrients. 31. Identify the caloric contributions of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates when they are oxidized. Determine what percentage of total calories in a sample diet is supplied by a given macronutrient from food intake data. Comment on the recommended caloric intake for a moderately active adult and the limitations of these suggested values. Determine how a pound of fat can be gained or lost; describe the importance of dietary fat aside from its energy-supplying function, i.e. the importance of linoleic acid as an essential fatty acid. SUFFOLK COMMUNITY COLLEGE Grant Campus BIO132 Anatomy & Physiology II Spring, 2015 Minimum Objectives IV The student should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomy and services performed by the kidneys, indicating how the nephron accomplishes: a) glomerular filtration. b) tubular reabsorption. c) tubular secretion. 2. Discuss the various influences on glomerular filtration rate (GFR). 3. Summarize the functions of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone in maintaining water/electrolyte balance. 4. Trace the flow of urine from the nephron through the urethra. 5. List the major organic and inorganic constituents of urine. 6. Describe the events involved in the act of urination (micturition), including the roles of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. 7. Discuss the reproductive physiology of the human male, including: a) the role of FSH and ICSH in sperm and androgen production. b) the effects of testosterone on sex organ development, secondary sex characteristics, sperm maturation, and libido (sex drive). c) meiosis and the stages of spermatogenesis. 8. Discuss the reproductive physiology of the human female, including: a) the hormones FSH and LH and control of their secretion. b) the importance of estrogens regarding secondary sex characteristics and libido. c) meiosis and the stages of oogenesis. 9. Correlate the various hormonal phases of the menstrual cycle with changes in the endometrium (uterine lining). 10. Explain how the endometrium is maintained during pregnancy. 11. Summarize the major events in development from fertilization through implantation and placentation. 12. Describe the influence of hormones on sex determination. 13. List the events which lead to the uterine contractions of labor and parturition (delivery). 14. Describe the pubertal and postpartum changes in the mammary glands and the roles of prolactin and oxytocin in lactation and milk let-down, respectively. 15. Comment on the reshuffling of hereditary material during the first metaphase of meiosis. 16. Discuss Mendel’s monohybrid cross and its relation to: a) dominance vs. recessiveness. b) the law of segregation, i.e. the separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, and its importance. c) the law of independent assortment. 17. Define chromosome, gene, haploid, diploid, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, alleles, loci, and mutation. 18. Demonstrate the use of a Punnett square to determine the genotypic frequencies of offspring, given the maternal and paternal genotypes. 19. Discuss human genetics in terms of: a) dominant-recessive gene pairs, e.g. albinism. b) the genetic determination of sex; autosomes vs sex chromosomes; inheritance of sex-linked genes. c) co-dominance and multiple alleles as related to the inheritance of the blood groups. d) the use of pedigrees to determine genotype. 20. Relax, now that you’ve mastered the last objective.