* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Assignment #1 Answers
Document related concepts
Assignment #1: Introduction & Italy: The Right Conditions, pp. 209 - 217 1. Why was the medieval view of the world pessimistic? - Life is short, full of suffering 2. What does the term “Renaissance” mean? What factors caused the Renaissance to happen first in Italy and not in England or Germany? - Renaissance = Rebirth - A. still used old Roman law ( didn’t use medieval law, Roman law very clear so made it easier to conduct business & trade b/w the city-states), - B. have many remains of Ancient Roman stuff like buildings, sculpture, paintings which inspired many Renaissance artists & architects - C. geography – collection of city-states located near seas (transportation routes), mild winter so can still travel, trade, lots of food to grow & sell all year, close ties to the East because located near the East (easier and cheaper to trade w/ them) 3. What did the Renaissance people think of the Middle Ages? - Fed-up of the art and negative world view of the Middle Ages - Thought the time was dark, full of chaos, no learning and no growth 4. How was Italy different from Northern Europe? What was Italy like during the Renaissance? 5. Explain the significance of geography with the start of the Renaissance in Italy. - geography – collection of city-states located near seas (transportation routes), mild winter so can still travel, trade, lots of food to grow & sell all year, close ties to the East because located near the East (easier and cheaper to trade w/ them) 6. What is a city-state? How did city-states manage to avoid becoming part of larger kingdoms or empires? Name three famous Italian city-states. - City w/ surrounding farmlands (hinterlands) to provide food & necessities - Had their own gov’t. & armed forces (hired condotierri to fight their wars/battles) 7. Who are the condotierri? What did they do? - Mercenary soldiers that protected the city-states - Still working today for the Vatican 8. Compare Venice and Florence with respect to location, geographical location, geographical advantages and disadvantages, population, source of wealth, political system, and important artists. (Make a chart.) Location Geographical advantages Geographical Disadvantages Population Source of wealth Political System Important Artists Venice - coastal, head of Adriatic Sea -maritime location; navy controlled trade routes on Med. Sea; easily defended -built on marshlands; supported by piles w/ canals for roads, prone to flooding - 150,000 - Merchant navy Oligarchy; powerful & wealthy families (like Medicis) Titian Florence -interior, on road from Rome to northern Italian cities North-central location; controlled kingdom of Naples No direct outlet to the sea; mountainous terrain; isolated -100,000 -cloth trade Officially a republic, but also an oligarchy (supreme ruler, the Doge, chosen from among the wealthy families and elected for life) Leonardo, Michelangelo 9. What made Venice and Florence so wealthy and powerful? Did they both grow rich for the same reasons? - Wealthy & powerful families - Also Venice located by coast so dominated Med. Trade - Florence dominance in cloth trade 10. What functions did the early Florentine banks perform? - Money changers, collected taxes, gave out lines of credit, made loans, invented cheques, introduced some accounting methods 11. What is an oligarchy? Why was Florence considered an oligarchy? - Gov’t. ruled by a few powerful people - Ruled by the richest & most powerful families - Starting in 1434, the Medici family ruled Florence 12. What is a republic? Is Venice a republic? Why or why not? - Elected gov’t. (citizens elect representatives to form gov’t.) - No because Doge (supreme leader) was elected for life - - he, the Senate & the Great Council came from wealthy families (more of an oligarchy) - - citizens live in fear of the most powerful part of gov’t., the secretive Council of Ten who could put people in prison, torture them and execute whoever in secret 13. Describe the Venetian government. - Comprised of Doge aka supreme leader who was elected for life, senators in the Senate, Great Council who passed law, order kept by Council of Ten (had the power to imprison, torture & execute any citizen of Venice.