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Biology Module 2012 : Locomotion & Support
PART A: Activities Section

Learning Outcomes:
- Describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and
locomotion
- Explains how problems in support and locomotion are overcome in humans and
animals
1. What is the difference between locomotion and movement?
Locomotion: ______________________________________________________
Movement: _______________________________________________________
2. Three types of skeletons in animals are _______________, ______________and
________________ _________________.
3. Fill in the blanks using appropriate answers.
2.1 Support &
Locomotion in
Humans and animals
Overcomed by
Needs for
support
Problems of
Animals
Humans
Skeletal
system
2
Muscular
system
Joints
Consists of
Position & nature of
4
Axial
eg.
3
1
5
Appendicular
•Earthworm
•Grasshopper
•Fish
Muscles
6
Tendon
Ligament
Muscles
action
Bring about
Movement
1

Learning Outcomes:
- Name the bones that make up the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton of
the human body
- Label the bones, the skeletal muscles and tendons in diagram of the arm
- Explain how movement is brought about in a limb
The Vertebral Column
4. Fill in the name of general vertebral structure parts:
1_________________
__________________
2_______________
________________
_
3_______________
__
5__________________
6________________
4_________________
__
Vertebral General Structure
Name and describe special characteristic for each vertebrae
Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
1. Name: ______________________
___________________________________
Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
2. Name: ______________________
2
Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
3. Name: ______________________
___________________________________
Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
coccyx
___________________________________
___________________________________
4. Name: ______________________
3
5. Label all the structures:
1
2
3
7
4
8
5
9
6
10
11
12
17
13
14
18
19
15
20
21
16
22
23
4
Appendicular Skeleton
6. Name all of the appendicular parts.
10
1
2
11
3
4
13
12
5
6
14
7
15
8
16
9
The Lower Limb
The Upper Limb
5
The action of antagonistic muscles
7. Fill in the blanks with correct answers.
B) Biceps muscle, B – _____________
while
A) ____________
Triceps muscle, C - _____________
B
D)____________
____________
C) _________
C
E)____________
__
G)Biceps muscle, B – _____________
while
Triceps muscle, C - _____________
F) _______________
B
C
H)_______________
6
Muscles Involved in Walking
8. Please arrange back all the process according to the right sequence:
a) The whole sequence is repeated with the left leg
b) Next, the quadriceps muscle contracts, pulls the femur forward and extends the
leg
c) The hamstring muscle contracts to pull the femur back and bends the knee. The
leg is raised
d) When the extension of the leg is completed, the foot then regains contact with
the ground with the heel touching the ground first. The weight of the body is now
supported on the right leg
e) The calf muscle contracts and raises the heel
f) In doing so, it exerts a forward thrust by pushing the ball of the foot against the
ground
g) As the right foot loses contact with the ground, the weight of the body is now
supported by the left leg which is still in contact with the ground
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
Appreciating A Healthy Muscoskeletal System
9. Tick √ for the right statement and X for the wrong one.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Clothing should not inhibit the movement of the body
Keep the body adequately dehydrated during vigorous
activities
Exercising with objects tied around the waist, or with illfitting footwear can distort the posture
Do not warm up before involve in sport activities
because it will make you cramp
Drink a fruit juice or a sports beverage if you are
working out in hot weather
Physical activities strengthen joint structures, increase
muscular perfomance and delay the progress of arthritis
Stilettoes should not be used for walking because the
weight of the body is on the front part of the feet
Taking adequate amounts of calcium and phosporus will
help us maintain our musculoskeletal system
Supports in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants
10. Fill in the blanks:
Need for
In
Achieved by
Achieved by
5
Collenchyma
1
2
3
Types
4
Schlerenchyma
Cell turgidity
Xylem
Examples
Examples
Examples
Examples
8
11. Complete all articles using the words given:
A. The mechanism of locomotion in an earthworm
downwards
strong
low
pressure
aerofoil
upper
coracoid
bottom
sternum
force
lifts
gliding
The locomotion of bird flight occurs through two ways, namely flapping the wings and
__________. When flapping the wings _________ , the ________ and large pectoral muscles
contract. Air resistance towards the movement of the wings downwards produces a force that acts
upwards against the wings.
This force is sent from the wings to the ________ until the _________ and ______ the whole
body of the bird upwards.
When gliding, the wing acts as an ___________. Air moves faster on the _________ surface of
the aerofoil. An area of ______ pressure exists on the upper surface and area of high pressure on
the ________ surface.
A lifting _______ is produced at the bottom of the wings and lifts the bird.
B. The mechanism of locomotion in an earthworm
shorter
hydrostatic
longitudinal
cavity
coelom
circular
muscles
chaetae
peristaltic
Earthworm have a _________ skeleton. The force is applied to a fluid-filled ________ called the
__________. The ___________ is surrounded by two antagonistic layers of __________: the
___________muscles and the ___________ muscles. When the circular muscles contract, the
longitudinal muscles relax. The earthworm becomes thinner and longer. When the longitudinal
muscles contract, the circular muscles relax. The earthworm becomes _________ and thicker. An
earthworm has _________ which anchor parts of the body to the ground so that the other parts
can be pulled towards the anchored parts. During locomotion, the contraction and relaxation of
both muscles produce a ____________ wave which begins at the front and moves towards the
end of the body.
C. The mechanism of locomotion in a grasshopper
antagonistic
jumping
pulled
extensor
flexor
propelling
contracts
upwards
extensor
A grasshopper has ___________ muscles called the flexor and ________ muscles which are
attached to the interior of the exoskeleton. The rear legs of a grasshopper are adapted for
___________. When the _____________ muscle in the upper part of a grasshopper’s leg
___________, the lower leg is __________ towards the body. When the ___________ muscle
contracts, the leg jerks backwards, ____________ the grasshopper forward and __________ into
the air.
9
C. The mechanism of locomotion in a fish
reduce
myotomes
sweep
Streamlined
contract
pushing
resistance
waves
backwards
A fish has a ____________ and slimy body to ________ water _____________ while swimming.
Each side of the fish’s body has __________ which are W-shaped muscle segments. Myotomes
are antagonistic muscles. When the muscles on one side ___________, those on the other side
relax. This produces alternating ________ of contraction and relaxation which pass down the
myotomes on either side of the body to the tail. As a result, the different parts of the body
__________ from side to side, ____________ the water ____________ and the fish forwards.
10
PART B: Structured Item Section
1. Figure 1 shows the arrangement of feathers and flight muscles of a bird
(a) (i) Name two other groups of animal that can fly.
_________________________________________________________________
(2 m)
(ii) State two differences between the musculoskeletal system of one group named
in (a) (i) and the musculoskeletal system of birds.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(2 m)
(b)
State three body characteristics that enable a bird to fly in air.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(3 m)
(c)
How does the arrangement of feathers on a bird help it fly in the air?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(2 m)
11
(d)
Describe the characteristics of bird’s bones that allow the bird to gain elevation in
the air.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(3 m)
(e)
State one more feature of the bird that helps it to fly in the air.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(1 m)
2.
(a) Name the type of joint shown in the figure.
___________________________________________________________________
(1 m)
(b) What is the function of the structure labelled V?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(2 m)
12
(c) The ends of the two bones are covered by X. What is the main function of X?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(2 m)
(d) What is W?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
(e) What is the importance of W?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
(f) (i) Give one example of a pair of bones that has this type of joint.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
(ii) Name a different type of joint from the one in the figure.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
13
3. Figure 3 shows Ramu (A) and Johari (B) adopting two different postures. Examine
Figure 3 carefully and then answer the following questions
(a) Define the term posture.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(1m)
(b) What is meant by a correct posture?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(c) Which student is adopting the correct posture, student A or B? __________________
(1m)
(d) How can you adopt the correct posture while standing?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(e) What is the effect of a bad posture on the human body? Answer this question in
terms of:
(i) Energy
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(2m)
14
(ii) Breathing mechanism
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(f) How can physical exercise help you to adopt the correct posture?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
(2m)
4. Figure 4(a) shows a series of movement of a worm on a surface. Figure 4(b) hows
the muscle, bone and joint that are involved in the movement of the arm.
X
4(A)
4(B)
(a) Name the muscle involved in the movement in the
(i) Worm: ____________________________________________________________
(ii) Arm: _____________________________________________________________
(2m)
(b) Describe the muscle actions that allow movement in the
(i) Worm
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(2m)
15
(ii) Arm
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(c) Explain the function of the liquid found in the worm’s body that allow it to move
forward
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(d) (i) Compare the skeletal strength of the worm and the vertebrate animal
_________________________________________________________________
(1m)
(ii) Give reasons to your answers in (d)(i)
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
(1m)
(e) If bone X of a person breaks,
(i) State two nutrients that the person should take
________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(ii) Explain why these nutrients are needed
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
(2m)
16
5. Figure 5 shows three types of plants P, Q and R. Each type of plants have special
adaptations to gain more support.
(a) Classify all this plants to two categories according to its habitat
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(b) (i) Explain how plant P gains support which enable it to survive in its habitat.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(1m)
(ii) Draw the special tissue involve in support in (b)(i) above
(2m)
17
(c) Terrestrial plants need support for one main purpose. State the main purpose.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(1m)
(d) (i) Explain the differences between P and Q and R referring to the stem condition.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(1m)
(ii) How plant Q obtain support?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
(2m)
(e) Draw the cross section of area XY and label all parts that give support to Q’s
stem.
(3m)
18
19