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Earth Materials
Minerals
•
Naturally occurring, inorganic,
crystalline solid that has a
definite chemical composition
Naturally Occurring
•
Formed in nature and not by
people
Inorganic
•
Is not made from or composed of
life forms
Crystalline
•
Has a specific arrangement of
atoms
IAOA
•
The Internal Arrangement Of the
Atoms specify the physical and
chemical properties of a mineral
What 2 elements make up
most of Earth’s Crust?
SILICON and OXYGEN
Silicon and Oxygen
combing to form….
Silicates (SiO4)
Silicates
hey also form a very SPECIFIC STRUCTUR
Silicon-oxygen
tetrahedra
are the basic
building blocks
for silicate
minerals
How can we identify a
mineral?
PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES
COLOR
VERY POOR indicator because the
SAME mineral can be the DIFFERENT
colors
COLOR
COLOR
VERY POOR indicator because
DIFFERENT mineral can be the SAME
colors
GOL
D
PYRITE
STREAK
The powder form of a mineral
Much more reliable than color
LUSTE
R
How LIGHT reflects off a minerals
Examples: Glassy, Metallic, NonMetallic
Cleavage
the mineral breaks in a predictable
pattern
because of its arrangement of atoms
CLEAVAGE
FRACTU
RE
The minerals breaks randomly
HARDNESS
RESISTANCE to being scratched
Not the same as breaking
For example:
You can easily break glass with
steel, but steel WILL NOT scratch
glass
HARDNESS
MOHS SCALE