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Transcript
CHAPTER 8 – Body Systems
Lesson 1 – Body Systems
-
What are Body Systems?

Cells – A cell is the basic unit of all living _______________.

Tissue – A group of _______________ cells working together is called a tissue.

Organ – A group of tissues that work together is called an _______________.

Body System – A group of organs working together to complete a _______________ is
called a body system.

-
Body systems are made of organs. Organs are made of tissues. Tissues are made of cells.
Body Systems Work Together

Relationship Between Body Systems – Each body system plays a _______________
role in the body. However, the systems work together to make sure that the body
maintains homeostasis.

What Is Homeostasis? Homeostasis is the condition in which the body’s internal
conditions are at a _______________ state.
-
Body Systems Depend on Each Other

One for All and All for One – Because your body systems are so dependent on each
other, caring for each system helps _______________ the others as well. When the health
of one system improves, the health of all the other systems also improves.
Lesson 2 – The Skeletal System
-
Bones and Joints

Bones – A bone is an organ of the _______________ system. Bones are hard because
they store minerals.

Bone Marrow – Inside a bone is soft tissue called bone _______________. Bone
marrow makes blood cells for the body.

-
Joints – A joint is a place where _______________ or more bones meet.
Bone and Joint Development

Cartilage – Before birth, most of the bones in a baby’s body are made of cartilage.
Cartilage is a soft, flexible _______________.

Bone Formation – Cartilage starts changing to bone before a baby is _______________.
The soft tissue hardens and becomes bone tissue as minerals, such as calcium, build up in
the bone. This change is not finished until a person is around 18 years old.
Lesson 3 – The Muscular System
-
Many Kinds of Muscles

Skeletal Muscle – Skeletal muscle is muscle that is attached to bones.
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CHAPTER 8 – Body Systems
-

Smooth Muscle – Smooth muscle is muscle that forms some _______________ organs.

Cardiac Muscle – Cardiac muscle is muscle that forms the _______________.
Muscles and Movement

How Muscles Move Bones – When skeletal muscles contract, they _______________ on
bones. When a muscle contracts, its two ends are pulled towards its center. If the two
ends are attached to different bones, the bones are pulled towards each other.
Lesson 4 – The Digestive System
-
Food and Nutrients

What Is Digestion? Digestion is the process of _______________ down food into a
form your body can use.

What Are Nutrients? Nutrients are substances in food that the body needs to
_______________ properly.
-
Solid Waste

The Large Intestine and Food Material – The large intestine _______________ water
and salts from the remaining food material. The parts of food that the body cannot use
become solid waste.
-
Nondigestive Waste Material

The Kidneys – The kidneys mix wastes with water to form urine. Urine is released from
the body by the urinary system.

The Lungs – Carbon dioxide is released from the body when you _______________.

The Skin – Sweat glands in the skin remove salt and water by _______________.
Lesson 5 – The Circulatory System
-
Blood

Blood is made of the following things:
1. _______________
2. Red blood cells
3. _______________ blood cells
4. Platelets

Arteries – Arteries carry blood _______________ from the heart to various organs.

Veins – Veins carry blood from various parts of the body back to the heart.

Capillaries – Capillaries are very small _______________ that connect arteries and
veins. Some capillaries are so small that you need a microscope to see them.
-
The Heart

The heart muscle contracts to pump blood through the blood _______________.
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CHAPTER 8 – Body Systems
Lesson 6 – The Respiratory System
-
The Path of Air

Air enters the body through the _______________ and the mouth and then moves to the
pharynx, or throat. The air moves through the following organs next:
1. Larynx
2. Trachea
3. Bronchi
4. _______________
-
Gas Exchange

The Alveoli – The _______________ and the blood exchange oxygen and carbon
dioxide in the alveoli.

The Capillaries of the Lungs – The blood in the lung’s capillaries picks up oxygen from
the alveoli and delivers it to the body’s _______________. When the blood returns to the
lungs, it brings carbon dioxide.
-
The Breathing Process

Inhalation – Inhalation is the process in which the air _______________ the lungs.

Exhalation – Exhalation is the process in which the air _______________ the lungs.
Lesson 7 – The Nervous System
-
Parts of the Nervous System

The Brain – The major organ in the nervous system is the brain. Different parts of the
brain control different _______________ functions.

The Spinal Cord – The spinal cord is an organ that carries messages to and from the
brain. These messages travel through groups of _______________.

Nerves – A nerve is a bundle of cells that conducts messages from one part of the body to
another.
-
Responding to Stimuli

What Are Stimuli? Changes that cause a reaction are called stimuli. The eyes, ears,
tongue, _______________, and skin sense stimuli outside the body and send messages to
the brain and spinal cord through nerves.

Reflexes – An automatic response to stimuli is called a _______________.
Lesson 8 – Taking Care of Your Body Systems
-
Getting Exercise

Helping the Skeleton and Muscles – Exercise keeps bones, joints, and muscles strong
and _______________.
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CHAPTER 8 – Body Systems

Helping the Heart – Exercise strengthens the _______________, because the heart
works faster during exercise.
-
Eating Healthy Foods

Vitamins and Minerals – Vitamins and minerals from fruits and vegetables help a
person _______________ and function properly.
-

Proteins – Protein from meat and dairy products helps build strong muscles and tissues.

Carbohydrates – Carbohydrates from grains are a good source of _______________.
Avoiding Tobacco and Other Drugs

Poisoning Your Body – Tobacco products, alcohol, and illegal drugs can harm every
system in your _______________.

Damaging Your Nervous System – Drugs can change how the nervous system works.
Because of this danger, drugs can affect the entire body.
-
Getting Enough Sleep

The body repairs and heals injured parts during _______________. Without enough
sleep, many organs—especially the brain—will not function correctly.
-
Drinking Water

Drinking enough water can prevent many health problems. Most people should drink
_______________ glasses of water each day.
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