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Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11th ed.
Chapter 11: Nervous System II
Chapter 11: Nervous System II
I. Introduction
A. Introduction
1. The central nervous system consists of ________________________________
2. The _____________ is the largest and most complex part of the nervous system
3. The brain includes ________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
4. The brainstem connects ____________________________________________
and allows _________________________________________________________
5. The spinal cord provides ___________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
6. The brain lies within ______________________________________________
and the spinal cord occupies ___________________________________________
7. Meninges are located ______________________________________________
and protect _________________________________________________________
II. Meninges
A. The meninges have _______________________________________________ layers.
B. The outermost layer is ______________________________________________ and is
composed of _____________________________________________________________
C. Dural sinuses are _______________________________________________________
D. Denticulate ligaments are ________________________________________________
E. The epidural space is ____________________________________________________
and contains _____________________________________________________________
F. The arachnoid mater is _______________________ that lacks ___________________
and is located_____________________________________________________________
G. The subarachnoid space is________________________________________________
and contains a fluid called___________________________________________________
11-1
H. The pia mater is ___________________ can contains __________________________
________________________________________________________________________
I. The pia matter is attached to _______________________________________________
III. Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
A. Introduction
1. Ventricles are _____________________ and are located __________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. The ventricles are continuous with ___________________________________
and are filled with ___________________________________________________
3. The largest ventricles are ___________________________________________
which are located ___________________________________________________
4. The third ventricle is located ________________________________________
5. The fourth ventricle is located _______________________________________
6. The cerebral aqueduct is ___________________________________________
7. The choroids plexus is _____________________________________________
and functions to _____________________________________________________
8. Most of the cerebrospinal fluid arises in _______________________________
and circulates into ___________________________________________________
9. Cerebrospinal fluid is continuously absorbed into________________________
10. Arachnoid granulations are ________________________________________
11. Cerebrospinal fluid is different from blood in that ______________________
__________________________________________________________________
12. The functions of cerebrospinal fluid are ______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
13. Because cerebrospinal fluid completely surrounds ______________________
_________________________, it protects them by________________________
__________________________________________________________________
IV. Spinal Cord
A. Introduction
1. The spinal cord is continuous with ___________________________________
and extends through _________________________________________________
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2. The spinal cord begins at the level of the ______________________________
and terminates near __________________________________________________
B. Structure of the Spinal Cord
1. The spinal cord consists of __________________________________segments,
each of which gives rise to ____________________________________________
2. The two enlargements of the spinal cord are ____________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3. The cervical enlargement supplies ____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
4. The lumbar enlargement supplies ____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5. The conus medullaris is ____________________________________________
6. The filum terminale is _____________________________________________
7. The cauda equina is _______________________________________________
8. Two grooves that extend the length of the spinal cord are _________________
__________________________________________________________________
9. In a cross section of the spinal cord, __________________________________
surrounds __________________________________________________________
10. Each side of the gray matter is divided into the following three horns: ______
__________________________________________________________________
11. Motor neurons are located in the ____________________________________
12. The gray commissure is ___________________________________________
13. The central canal is ______________________________________________
14. Three regions of the white matter are ________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
15. Nerve tracts are _________________________________________________
C. Functions of the Spinal Cord
1. Reflex Arcs
a. Reflex arcs carry out ________________________________________
b. A reflex arc begins with ______________________________________
at the end of __________________________________________________
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c. Nerve impulses on these sensory neurons enter the ________________
and constitute a ____________or_____________limb of the reflex.
d. The CNS is a_________________________________________.
e. Afferent neurons or interneurons ultimately connect with
__________________, whose fibers pass outward from the CNS to
________________.
2. Reflex Behavior
a. Reflexes are _______________________________________________
b. Reflexes function to _________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
c. The knee-jerk reflex is an example of ___________________________
______________________ because it only uses ____________________
d. The knee-jerk reflex is initiated by _____________________________
e. When the tendon is struck, the _________________________ is pulled.
f. When the muscle is pulled, _______________________ are stimulated.
g. The receptors generate a nervous impulse that enters the spinal cord on
an axon; the axon synapses with __________________________________
h. The axon of the motor neuron synapses with _____________________
and the muscle responds by _____________________________________
i. The knee-jerk reflex helps maintain _____________________________
j. The withdrawal reflex occurs when _____________________________
____________________________________________________________
k. In the withdrawal reflex, muscles on the affected side contract and the
flexor muscles on the unaffected side ______________________________
l. The extensor muscles on the unaffected side _____________________ ,
helping to support _____________________________________________
m. A crossed extensor reflex is due to _____________________________
____________________________________________________________
n. A withdrawal reflex protects because ___________________________
____________________________________________________________
3. Ascending and Descending Tracts
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a. Ascending tracts conduct _____________________________________
b. Descending tracts conduct ____________________________________
c. The names that identify nerve tracts often reflect __________________
____________________________________________________________
d. Four major ascending tracts of the spinal cord are _________________
____________________________________________________________
e. The fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus are located___________
____________________________________________________________
f. The fibers of fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus conduct ______
____________________________________________________________
g. The spinothalamic tracts are located in __________________________
____________________________________________________________
h. The lateral spinothalamic tracts conduct impulses from _____________
____________________________________________________________
i. The anterior spinothalamic tracts impulses are interpreted as _________
____________________________________________________________
j. Spinocerebellar tracts are located _______________________________
____________________________________________________________
k. Impulses on the spinocerebellar tracts originate in _________________
___________________________ and travel to _____________________
l. Three major descending tracts of the spinal cord are ________________
____________________________________________________________
m. Corticospinal tracts are located ________________________________
n. The corticospinal tracts conduct _____________________________ to
____________________________________________________________
o. The pyramidal tracts are________________________________ and the
extrapyramidal tracts are ________________________________________
p. Reticulospinal tracts are located _______________________________
____________________________________________________________
q. Motor impulses of the reticulospinal tracts control _________________
____________________________________________________________
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r. Rubrospinal tracts are located__________________________________
____________________________________________________________
s. Rubrospinal tracts carry motor impulses that coordinate _____________
____________________________________________________________
V. Brain
A. Introduction
1. The brain contains nerve centers associated with ________________________
and is responsible for ________________________________________________
2. The other functions of the brain include _______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
B. Brain Development
1. The brain begins as a ______________________________________________
2. The portion of the neural tube that becomes the brain has the following three
major cavities: ______________________________________________________
3. The forebrain divides into __________________________________________
4. The hindbrain partially divides into ___________________________________
5. The wall of the anterior potion of the forebrain gives rise to _______________
__________________________________________________________________
6. The posterior portion of the forebrain gives rise to _______________________
__________________________________________________________________
7. The midbrain is called ________________ in the adult and the hindbrain gives
rise to _____________________________________________________________
C. Structure of the Cerebrum
1. The _______________________________ is the largest part of the adult brain.
2. The cerebrum consists of two _______________________________________
3. The corpus callosum is_____________________________________________
4. Convolutions are _________________________________________________
5. Sulci are ________________________________________________________
6. A fissure is ______________________________________________________
7. The longitudinal fissure separates ____________________________________
8. The transverse fissure separates ______________________________________
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9. The 5 lobes of the cerebral hemispheres are ____________________________
__________________________________________________________________
10. The most anterior lobe is the _______________________________________
11. The frontal lobe is bordered posteriorly by ____________________________
and inferiorly by ____________________________________________________
12. The ___________ lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus.
13. The ____________________ lobe lies inferior to the frontal and parietal lobes
and is separated from them by _________________________________________
14. The most posterior lobe is _________________________________________
15. The tentorium cerebelli is _________________________________________
16. The insula is located______________________________________________
17. The cerebral cortex is __________________________________________ and
contains nearly ____________ of all the neuron cell bodies in the nervous system
18. Just beneath the cerebral cortex is ___________________________________
D. Functions of the Cerebrum
1. Functional Regions of the Cortex
a. The cerebral cortex is divided into the following three major sections:
____________________________________________________________
2. Sensory Areas
a. Sensory areas interpret _______________________________________
11-7
b. Sensations on the skin are interpreted in _________________________
____________________________________________________________
c. Visual sensations are interpreted in _____________________________
d. Auditory sensations are interpreted in ___________________________
e. Taste sensations are interpreted in ______________________________
f. Like motor fibers, sensory fibers cross over in ____________________
____________________________________________________________
3. Association Areas
a. Association areas are ________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
b. Association areas analyze and interpret __________________________
and help provide ______________________________________________
c. The association areas of the frontal lobe provide___________________
____________________________________________________________
d. The prefrontal areas control ___________________________________
____________________________________________________________
e. The parietal lobes have association areas that _____________________
____________________________________________________________
f. The association areas of the temporal lobes interpret________________
____________________________________________________________
g. The association areas of the occipital lobes are important for _________
____________________________________________________________
h. The general interpretative area is located ________________________
_____________________ and functions to ________________________
____________________________________________________________
4. Hemisphere Dominance
a. In most people the ________________________________ is dominant.
b. The dominant hemisphere controls _____________________________
____________________________________________________________
c. The nondominant hemisphere controls __________________________
____________________________________________________________
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d. Nerve fibers of the _________________________ enable the dominant
hemisphere to ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
5. Memory
a. Memory is ________________________________________________
b. Two types of memory are ____________________________________
c. Short-term memories are _____________________________ in nature.
d. When the electrical impulse of a short-term memory ceases, the memory
____________________________________________________________
e. Long-term memory changes __________________________________
in ways that __________________________________________________
f. Memory consolidation is _____________________________________
6. Motor Areas
a. The primary motor areas are located ____________________________
____________________________________________________________
b. Impulses transmitted from the primary motor are responsible for _____
____________________________________________________________
c. Broca’s area is located __________________________________ and is
responsible for ________________________________________________
d. Broca’s area is usually found in the ___________________ hemisphere.
e. The frontal eye field is located ____________________________ and is
responsible for ________________________________________________
E. Basal Nuclei
1. The basal nuclei are _______________________________________________
and are called ______________________________________________________
2. The basal nuclei relay _________________________________________ into
__________________________________________________________________
3. The basal nuclei produce most of the _________________________________
in the nervous system.
4. Impulses from the basal nuclei function to _____________________________
__________________________________________________________________
11-9
F. Diencephalon
1. The diencephalon is located _________________________________________
2. The various parts of the diencephalon are ______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3. The thalamus is a selective gateway for _______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
4. The thalamus receives most sensory impulses and channels them to _________
__________________________________________________________________
5. The hypothalamus regulates ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
6. The limbic system consists of _______________________________________
_______________________________ and controls _______________________
__________________________________________________________________
G. Brain Stem
1. Introduction
a. The brain stem connects ______________________________________
b. The brain stem consists of ____________________________________
c. Nuclei of the brain stem are ___________________________________
2. Midbrain
a. The midbrain is between _____________________________________
b. The cerebral aqueduct is _____________________________________
c. Corpora quadrigemina are ____________________________________
d. The superior colliculi contain centers for ________________________
e. The inferior colliculi contain centers for _________________________
f. The red nucleus is ______________________________________ and is
important for _________________________________________________
3. Pons
a. The pons is located __________________________________________
b. The dorsal portion of the pons largely consists of fibers that relay
impulses to and from ___________________________________________
c. The ventral portion consists of fibers that relay impulses from ________
11-10
___________________ to _____________________________________
d. Several nuclei of the pons relay sensory information to _____________
____________________________________________________________
e. The pons also regulates ___________________________ of breathing.
4. Medulla Oblongata
a. The medulla oblongata is located _______________________________
b. The olive of the medulla oblongata is ___________________________
____________________________________________________________
c. The visceral activities controlled by the medulla oblongata are _______
____________________________________________________________
d. Nonvital reflexes regulated by the medulla oblongata are____________
____________________________________________________________
5. Reticular Formation
a. The reticular formation is _____________________________________
____________________________________________________________
b. The reticular formation activates _______________________________
into a state of _________________________________________________
c. _______________________ of the reticular formation results in sleep.
d. The reticular formation also filters _____________________________
e. The reticular formation also regulates motor activities so that ________
____________________________________________________________
6. Types of Sleep
a. The two types of sleep are ____________________________________
b. Slow-wave sleep occurs when _________________________________
and it reflects _________________________________________________
c. Slow-wave sleep is accompanied by reduced _____________________
____________________________________________________________
d. REM sleep is ______________________________________________
H. Cerebellum
1. The cerebellum is located __________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
11-11
2. The falx cerebelli is _______________________________________________
3. The vermis is ____________________________________________________
4. The cerebellar cortex is ____________________________________________
5. The arbor vitae is _________________________________________________
6. The largest and most important nucleus of the cerebellum is _______________
__________________________________________________________________
7. Cerebellar peduncles are ___________________________________________
8. Inferior peduncles bring ____________________________________________
__________________________ to ____________________________________
11-12
9. The middle peduncles transmit impulses from __________________________
____________________________ to __________________________________
10. The superior peduncles sends ______________________________________
impulses to ________________________________________________________
11. Overall, the cerebellum functions to _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
VII. Peripheral Nervous System
A. Introduction
1. The peripheral nervous system consists of _____________________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. The somatic nervous system consists of _______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3. The autonomic nervous system consists of _____________________________
__________________________________________________________________
B. Structure of Peripheral Nerves
1. A peripheral nerve consists of _______________________________________
2. Epineurium is ____________________________________________________
3. Perineurium is ___________________________________________________
4. Endoneurium is __________________________________________________
C. Nerve Fiber Classification
1. Sensory nerves are ________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. Motor nerves are _________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3. Mixed nerves are _________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
4. Cranial nerves are ________________________________________________
5. Spinal nerves are _________________________________________________
6. General somatic efferent fibers carry __________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
11-13
7. General visceral efferent fibers carry __________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
8. General somatic afferent fibers carry __________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
9. General visceral afferent fibers carry __________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
10. Special somatic efferent fibers carry _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
11. Special visceral afferent fibers carry _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
12. Special somatic afferent fibers carry _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
D. Cranial Nerves
1. Cranial nerves arise from ___________________________________________
2. Cranial nerves are designated by _____________________________________
3. The olfactory nerve functions to _____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
4. The optic nerve functions to ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5. The oculomotor nerve functions to ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
6. The trochlear nerve functions to _____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
7. The three divisions of the trigeminal nerve are __________________________
__________________________________________________________________
8. The ophthalmic division functions to _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
9. The maxillary division functions to ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
10. The mandibular division functions to ________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
11-14
11. The abducens nerve functions to ____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
12. The facial nerve functions to _______________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
13. The two branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve are ____________________
__________________________________________________________________
14. The vestibular branch functions to ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
15. The cochlear branch functions to ____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
16. The glossopharyngeal nerve functions to _____________________________
__________________________________________________________________
17. The vagus nerve functions to _______________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
18. The branches of the accessory nerve are ______________________________
19. The cranial branch functions to _____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
20. The spinal branch functions to ______________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
21. The hypoglossal nerve functions to __________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
E. Spinal Nerves
1. Introduction
a. There are________________________________ pairs of spinal nerves.
b. All spinal nerves are ___________ nerves and they provide _________
____________________________________________________________
c. There are______________________________ pairs of cervical nerves.
d. There are _____________________________ pairs of thoracic nerves.
e. There are_______________________________ pairs of lumbar nerves.
f. There are ________________________________ pairs of sacral nerves.
g. There is_______________________________pair of coccygeal nerves.
11-15
h. The adult spinal cord ends at the level of ________________________
____________________________________________________________
i. The cauda equina is__________________________________________
j. Each spinal nerve emerges from the cord by ______________________
k. The dorsal root ganglion contains ______________________________
____________________________________________________________
l. ________________________________ extend through the dorsal root.
m. A dermatome is ____________________________________________
n. The ventral root consists of ___________________________________
____________________________________________________________
o. A ventral root and dorsal root unite to form ______________________
p. A meningeal branch of a spinal nerve supplies ____________________
____________________________________________________________
q. A posterior branch of a spinal nerve supplies _____________________
____________________________________________________________
r. An anterior branch of a spinal nerve supplies _____________________
____________________________________________________________
s. A plexus is ________________________________________________
t. In a plexus, fibers of various ___________________________________
are sorted and ________________________________________________
2. Cervical Plexuses
a. The cervical plexus is located _________________________________
b. The cervical plexus is formed by _______________________________
c. Fibers from the cervical plexus supply __________________________
____________________________________________________________
d. The phrenic nerve conducts impulses to _________________________
3. Brachial Plexuses
a. The brachial plexus is located _________________________________
b. The brachial plexus is formed by _______________________________
c. The major branches emerging from the brachial plexus are __________
____________________________________________________________
11-16
d. The musculocutaneous nerves supply ___________________________
____________________________________________________________
e. The ulnar nerves supply ______________________________________
____________________________________________________________
f. The radial nerves supply ______________________________________
____________________________________________________________
g. The median nerves supply ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________
h. The axillary nerves supply ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________
4. Lumbosacral Plexuses
a. The lumbosacral plexus is located ______________________________
____________________________________________________________
b. The lumbosacral plexus is formed by ___________________________
c. The major branches of the lumbosacral plexus are _________________
____________________________________________________________
d. The obturator nerves supply___________________________________
e. The femoral nerves supply ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________
f. The sciatic nerves supply _____________________________________
____________________________________________________________
g. The anterior branches of thoracic spinal nerves do not enter a ________
__________________________________ ; instead these branches become
________________________ that supply _________________________
____________________________________________________________
11-17
VIII. Autonomic Nervous System
A. Introduction
1. The autonomic nervous system controls _______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. The autonomic nervous system functions without___________________ effort.
B. General Characteristics
1. The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are ___________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. The sympathetic division prepares the body for _________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3. The parasympathetic division is most active during ______________________
__________________________________________________________________
C. Autonomic Nerve Fibers
1. All nerve neurons of the autonomic nervous system are ___________________
2. In the autonomic system, motor pathways include _______________________
3. A preganglionic fiber is ____________________________________________
4. A postganglionic fiber is ___________________________________________
5. A preganglionic fiber synapses with __________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
6. A postganglionic fiber synapses with _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
D. Sympathetic Division
1. In the sympathetic division, the preganglionic fibers originate ______________
__________________________________________________________________
2. In the sympathetic division, the preganglionic fibers leave the spinal nerves
through ___________________________ and enter ________________________
3. Paravertebral ganglia are located _____________________________________
4. The sympathetic trunks are _________________________________________
5. The collateral ganglia are located ____________________________________
6. Typically a preganglionic axon of the sympathetic nervous system synapses
with ______________________________________________________________
11-18
7. In the sympathetic division, the postganglionic fibers extend _______________
_________________________ to _____________________________________
8. Gray rami are ____________________________________________________
E. Parasympathetic Division
1. The preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division arise from _________
__________________________________________________________________
2. The preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division lead to ____________
that are located _____________________________________________________
3. The ______________ postganlionic fibers of the parasympathetic division lead
__________________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________ are usually myelinated and the
_____________________________________________ are usually unmyelinated.
F. Autonomic Neurotransmitters
1. The different postganglionic neurotransmitters are responsible for __________
__________________________________________________________________
2. The preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
secrete ________________________ and are called ________________________
3. The parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are _______________________ .
4. Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons secrete __________________ and are
called _____________________________________________________________
5. Sympathetic tone is _______________________________________________
G. Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters
1. The actions of autonomic neurotransmitters result from ___________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. Two types of cholinergic receptors are ________________________________
3. Muscarinic receptors are located _____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
4. Nicotinic receptors are located_______________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5. Responses from muscarinic receptors are ______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
11-19
6. Responses from nicotinic receptors are ________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
7. The two major types of adrenergic receptors are _________________________
8. Acetylcholinesterase decomposes ____________________________________
H. Control of Autonomic Activity
1. The autonomic nervous system is largely controlled by ___________________
__________________________________________________________________
2. The limbic system and cerebral cortex control the autonomic nervous system
during ____________________________________________________________
IX. Life-Span Changes
A. Apoptosis is ____________________________________________________ and first
occurs during _____________________________________________________________
B. By age __________________________________ , the die-off of neurons accelerates.
C. Over an average lifetime, the brain shrinks by about ___________________________
D. With aging, the numbers of dendritic branches and amounts of neurotransmitters ____
________________________________________________________________________
E. Noticeable signs of a normally aging nervous system include ____________________
________________________________________________________________________
F. Decline in function of the sympathetic nervous system may cause ________________
________________________________________________________________________
G. Changes in sleep patterns reflect ___________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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