Chapter 11 Part 1: The Rise of Islam I. Daily Life in Early Arabia -Much of the Arabian peninsula is desert, although there are mountains in the southwest -Early Arabs formed tribes that were headed by a sheikh -Bedouins-desert herders. Many Arabs lived in villages near oases. -Merchants formed caravans to protect themselves from Bedouin attacks. -Makkah-largest and wealthiest trade center-important religious site -Arabs consider Allah the creator II. Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet -Muhammad-accepted as a prophet to the people of Arabia -He was visited by and angel who told him to preach Islam -Muhammad returned to Makkah and told people to worship one god, Allah. -Many people became followers of Islam. Wealthy people did not like this and made life difficult for Muhammad and his followers. -Muhammad and followers went to Yathrib-known as the Hijrah. -Yathrib welcomed them and renamed the city Madinah. -An Islamic state was created. Muhammad built an army, conquered Makkah, and returned to the holy city. Muhammad died two years later. III. Islam’s Teachings -Islam, Judaism, and Christianity all share some common beliefs. -Quran-holy book of Islam. Many rules in the Quran apply to Muslim’s daily life. -Five Pillars of Islam-to be followed by all Muslims. -Sunna-customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds -Islam’s law code is taken from the Quran and the Sunna. Chapter 11 Part 2: Islamic Empires I. The Spread of Islam -Muhammad’s successor was called a caliph. Rightly Guided Caliphs-the first four caliphs to rule from Madinah. -Umayyad caliphs-made capital at the city of Damascus. -The Islamic state soon became a great empire. -Muslims believed people who died fighting for Islam would go to paradise. -Arabs let conquered people practice their own religion, but made non-Muslims pay a special tax. -Arab merchants spread Islam throughout southeast Asia. -Indonesia-has largest Muslim population in the world. -Timbuktu-became center of Muslim learning. II. Struggles Within Islam -Muslims split into two groups after Muhammad’s death-Sunnis and Shiites. -Umayyad dynasty lost power and was replaced by the Abbasids. -Abbasids built a new capital at Baghdad. -The Seljuk Turks gradually took control of the Abbasid dynasty. -Arab Empire ended when Mongols invaded Baghdad and burned it to the ground. III. Later Muslim Empires -Ottoman Turks-northwest Asia Minor-began to build their own empire. Conquered Byzantine Empire and changed the name of Constantinople to Istanbul. -Ottoman army moved into Europe, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and parts of Arabia and North Africa. -Suleiman I-most famous sultan. -The Ottoman gradually fell apart after Suleiman I, collapsing completely at the end of World War I. -Ottoman Empire made up of different people who practice different religions. -Moguls-created Muslim empire in India and made capital at Delhi. -Akbar-greatest Mogul ruler. -The Mogul empire declined after Akbar’s rule. Eventually, Great Britain took over most of India. Chapter 11 Part 3: Muslim Ways of Life I. Trade and Everyday Life -Until the 1400s, Muslim traders were the most successful merchants in the Middle East and North Africa. -Mosques-Muslim houses of worship -Most Muslims lived in small villages and farmed. -Muslim social classes were based on power and wealth. -Men ran government, society, and business. Women helped run families (could inherit wealth and own property, and in many places they had to cover their faces and wear long robes in public-hijab). II. Muslim Achievements -Arabic language helped different people trade goods and share knowledge. -Mamun-Abbasid caliph-founded the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. -Muslim scholars preserved much of the learning in the ancient world. They invented algebra perfected the astrolabe. -al-Razi-Muslim chemist-developed system for categorizing substances. -Ibn Sina-Persian doctor-showed how diseases spread from person to person. -Muslims created great works of literature. -Omar Khayyam-wrote Rubaiyat and Arabian Nights -Ibn Khaldun-Muslim historian-studied the effect of geography and climate on people. -Muslim architecture includes great mosques. -Islamic rulers lived in lush brick palaces, with courtyards, pools, porches, and fountains. -Taj Mahal-Agra-created as a tomb for the wife of Shah Jahan, a Mogul ruler. -Muslims do not show images of Muhammad in their art.