Download Chapter 11 Part 1: The Rise of Islam

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Islamic culture wikipedia, lookup

Islamic schools and branches wikipedia, lookup

Schools of Islamic theology wikipedia, lookup

Islam and modernity wikipedia, lookup

Islam and other religions wikipedia, lookup

Historicity of Muhammad wikipedia, lookup

Political aspects of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam in Afghanistan wikipedia, lookup

Fiqh wikipedia, lookup

Islam and secularism wikipedia, lookup

Islam and violence wikipedia, lookup

Origin of Shia Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islamic democracy wikipedia, lookup

Islamofascism wikipedia, lookup

Criticism of Islamism wikipedia, lookup

Islam and Mormonism wikipedia, lookup

Al-Nahda wikipedia, lookup

Soviet Orientalist studies in Islam wikipedia, lookup

Satanic Verses wikipedia, lookup

Islam and Sikhism wikipedia, lookup

War against Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam and war wikipedia, lookup

International reactions to Fitna wikipedia, lookup

Hindu–Islamic relations wikipedia, lookup

Islamic–Jewish relations wikipedia, lookup

Islamic extremism in the 20th-century Egypt wikipedia, lookup

Spread of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Muslim world wikipedia, lookup

History of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Dhimmi wikipedia, lookup

Gender roles in Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam in South Africa wikipedia, lookup

Reception of Islam in Early Modern Europe wikipedia, lookup

Medieval Muslim Algeria wikipedia, lookup

Chapter 11 Part 1: The Rise of Islam
I. Daily Life in Early Arabia
-Much of the Arabian peninsula is desert, although there are mountains in the
-Early Arabs formed tribes that were headed by a sheikh
-Bedouins-desert herders. Many Arabs lived in villages near oases.
-Merchants formed caravans to protect themselves from Bedouin attacks.
-Makkah-largest and wealthiest trade center-important religious site
-Arabs consider Allah the creator
II. Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet
-Muhammad-accepted as a prophet to the people of Arabia
-He was visited by and angel who told him to preach Islam
-Muhammad returned to Makkah and told people to worship one god, Allah.
-Many people became followers of Islam. Wealthy people did not like this and
made life difficult for Muhammad and his followers.
-Muhammad and followers went to Yathrib-known as the Hijrah.
-Yathrib welcomed them and renamed the city Madinah.
-An Islamic state was created. Muhammad built an army, conquered Makkah, and
returned to the holy city. Muhammad died two years later.
III. Islam’s Teachings
-Islam, Judaism, and Christianity all share some common beliefs.
-Quran-holy book of Islam. Many rules in the Quran apply to Muslim’s daily life.
-Five Pillars of Islam-to be followed by all Muslims.
-Sunna-customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds
-Islam’s law code is taken from the Quran and the Sunna.
Chapter 11 Part 2: Islamic Empires
I. The Spread of Islam
-Muhammad’s successor was called a caliph. Rightly Guided Caliphs-the first four
caliphs to rule from Madinah.
-Umayyad caliphs-made capital at the city of Damascus.
-The Islamic state soon became a great empire.
-Muslims believed people who died fighting for Islam would go to paradise.
-Arabs let conquered people practice their own religion, but made non-Muslims
pay a special tax.
-Arab merchants spread Islam throughout southeast Asia.
-Indonesia-has largest Muslim population in the world.
-Timbuktu-became center of Muslim learning.
II. Struggles Within Islam
-Muslims split into two groups after Muhammad’s death-Sunnis and Shiites.
-Umayyad dynasty lost power and was replaced by the Abbasids.
-Abbasids built a new capital at Baghdad.
-The Seljuk Turks gradually took control of the Abbasid dynasty.
-Arab Empire ended when Mongols invaded Baghdad and burned it to the ground.
III. Later Muslim Empires
-Ottoman Turks-northwest Asia Minor-began to build their own empire. Conquered
Byzantine Empire and changed the name of Constantinople to Istanbul.
-Ottoman army moved into Europe, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and
parts of Arabia and North Africa.
-Suleiman I-most famous sultan.
-The Ottoman gradually fell apart after Suleiman I, collapsing completely at the
end of World War I.
-Ottoman Empire made up of different people who practice different religions.
-Moguls-created Muslim empire in India and made capital at Delhi.
-Akbar-greatest Mogul ruler.
-The Mogul empire declined after Akbar’s rule. Eventually, Great Britain took over
most of India.
Chapter 11 Part 3: Muslim Ways of Life
I. Trade and Everyday Life
-Until the 1400s, Muslim traders were the most successful merchants in the Middle
East and North Africa.
-Mosques-Muslim houses of worship
-Most Muslims lived in small villages and farmed.
-Muslim social classes were based on power and wealth.
-Men ran government, society, and business. Women helped run families (could
inherit wealth and own property, and in many places they had to cover their faces and
wear long robes in public-hijab).
II. Muslim Achievements
-Arabic language helped different people trade goods and share knowledge.
-Mamun-Abbasid caliph-founded the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
-Muslim scholars preserved much of the learning in the ancient world. They invented
algebra perfected the astrolabe.
-al-Razi-Muslim chemist-developed system for categorizing substances.
-Ibn Sina-Persian doctor-showed how diseases spread from person to person.
-Muslims created great works of literature.
-Omar Khayyam-wrote Rubaiyat and Arabian Nights
-Ibn Khaldun-Muslim historian-studied the effect of geography and climate on people.
-Muslim architecture includes great mosques.
-Islamic rulers lived in lush brick palaces, with courtyards, pools, porches, and
-Taj Mahal-Agra-created as a tomb for the wife of Shah Jahan, a Mogul ruler.
-Muslims do not show images of Muhammad in their art.