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SOC 213.002 Social Deviance Bogart Test01b
Part 01: Text (Thio) Items: Old
Chapter 2: Traditional Theories
1. Merton would refer to lower-class people who resort to stealing, robbing, and other deviant activities to
achieve accepted cultural values as: _____. A. retreatists B. rebels C. ritualists D. innovators E. conformists
2. According to _____ theory, deviant behavior is learned through one=s interaction with others. A. learning
B. status frustration C. goal-means gap D. reintegrative shaming E. deterrence (p. 24)
3. Hirschi assumes that all of us are endowed, like animals, with the ability to commit deviant acts. But most
of us do not because of _____. A. reintegrative shaming B. status retreatism C. the deterrence doctrine D.
differential identification E. our strong bond to society (p. 28)
4. Disintegrative shaming (Braithwaite, 1989) that occurs in the United States is characterized by _____ social
relationships, and _____ individualism. (p.29) A. stronger, stronger B. weaker, weaker C. stronger, weaker
D. weaker, stronger
5. The general pattern in the research on specific deterrence is most clearly supportive of the view that: A.
specific deterrence is most effective for white-collar crime B. specific deterrence is not as effective as general
deterrence C. the results are mixed and the implication unclear D. specific deterrence is not an effective
means of social control E. the research has a conservative political bias (p. 29)
6. According to the typology of responses to the goal-means gap, _____ is the most likely response for
alcoholics and drug addicts. A. conformity B. innovation C. ritualism D. retreatism E. rebellion (p.19)
7. Edwin Sutherland formulated a theory of _____ to explain how the learning of deviance comes about. A.
differential legitimate opportunity B. status frustration C. differential identification D. differential illegitimate
opportunity E. differential association (p. 24)
8. The law of ________ states that individuals will choose deviance over conventionality if they find deviance
to be the more satisfying alternative. A. differential opportunity B. legal reality C. social reality D.
differential reinforcement E. differential association (p. 26)
9. Reintegrative shaming involves making wrongdoers feel _____, while showing them understanding and
forgiveness. A. stigmatized B. ostracized C. rejected D. guilty E. innocent (p. 28)
10. According to Hirschi, people are likely to become deviant if their bond to society and their _____ are
weak. A. moral values B. social identification C. self-control D. conformity E. social control (p. 30)
Chapter 3: Modern Theories
11. AForms of the behavior per se do not differentiate deviants from non deviants; it is the responses of the
conventional and conforming members of society who identify and interpret behavior as deviant which
sociologically transform persons into deviants.@ This quote was made by a _____. A. labeling theorist B.
social learning theorist C. conflict theorist D. traditional theorist E. phenomenologist (p. 36)
12. AThe investigator goes into the situation to be studied with a totally open mind@ and expunges all scientific
notions and his/her own personal beliefs. This is called _____. A. conflict reduction B. phenomenological
bracketing C. feminist reality stance D. positivistic interactionism E. deviant reductionism (p. 41)
13. _____ conflict has to do with incompatible interests while _____ conflict has to do with discrepant norms
and values that derive from definitions of right and wrong. A. social, cultural B. cultural, social C. Marxist,
feminist D. Feminist, Marxist E. Legal, Marxist (p. 44)
14. Power theory is based on the concept of _____. A. female subordination B. organizational imperative C.
relative deprivation D. capitalistic dominance E. historical legal precedents (p. 50)
15. The phrase Adeviance is traced to the exploitative nature of capitalism@ would most likely be attributed to
which theory? A. legal reality theory B. feminist theory C. Marxist theory D. Symbolic interactionist theory
E. Power theory (p. 48)
16. When individuals or groups are labeled deviant, some positive consequences for the community (as the
labeler) can include _____. A. preservation of social cohesion and social order B. preventing more deviant
acts C. creating new laws against deviants D. engaging in more deviant acts E. none of the above (p. 38)
17. The meanings that positivists ascribe to deviance are ________ in nature, that is, independent of concrete
situations in which the deviant person is involved A. fundamentally problematic B. abstract C. definitive D.
situated E. subjective (p. 40)
18. _____ conflict has to do with the discrepant norms and values that derive from definitions of right and
wrong. A. cultural B. social C. religious D. legal E. none of the above (p. 44)
19. According to Marxist theory, the pursuit of increasing profit eventually throws some of the labor force
out of work. These unemployed laborers are called. A. deviant population B. labeled population C. marginal
surplus population D. subordinate class E. none of the above (p. 48)
20. Stronger deviant motivation, greater deviant opportunity, and weaker social control are three reasons that
are suggested in _____ theory to explain why the powerful are more likely to commit profitable deviance. A.
Marxist B. Feminist C. Labeling D. Power E. Conflict (p. 50)
Part 02: Old Lecture Items
Lecture 1 B Functional Theory
21. Erickson: The _____ of the community become defined (and maintained) in the critical transactions
between (1) deviants and (2) official agents of the community. A. values B. norms C. mores D. boundaries
E. terms of discourse
22. According to Durkheim, a society is best served if crime is: A. eliminated B. minimized C. optimized
(neither high nor low) D. cyclical E. constant
23. In the perspective of Erickson, social systems create their identities primarily by: A. religious myths B.
focusing on what they are not C. comparing themselves frequently to hated rivals D. a rigid caste system E.
rites of passage
24. Durkheim believed that A. societies can eliminate crime B. societies of saints are examples of societies
without crime C. scandals and public outrages mobilize he collective sentiments D. crime exists in the
absolute sense E. progress requires that people be obedient and orderly
25. According to Kingsley Davis, in his work AThe Sociology of Prostitution@, the act of prostitution exists
for all of the following reasons EXCEPT _____ A. society is lenient in its toleration of unrestricted
indulgence in recreational sex B. it provides erotic release of a promiscuous, non-emotionally complicating
nature C. women engage in prostitution for other than economic reasons D. it provides greater variety and
less judgmental sexual services E. society emphasizes the importance of the traditional monogamous family
Lecture 2 B Social Disorganization Theory
26. Thomas and Znaniecki were part of the _____ school. A. Early Chicago School B. Deconstructionist C.
Neo-Marxist D. Kulturkreise E. Sociobiological
27. The period and circumstances under which Social Disorganization Theory evolved was: A. in the 1930=s
during the economic depression B. during the Roaring Twenties (1920=s) before Prohibition was passed C.
during the early 1940=s after America entered World War II D. after the turn of the century (post-1900)
during a period of advanced industrialization and urbanization E. in the 1960=s clash between the Vietnam
War and the Peace Movement
28. Thomas and Znaniecki studied Polish immigrant teenage girls because A. the study of sex and gender was
a dominant theme at the University of Chicago B. huge waves of Polish immigrants were flooding Chicago at
that time C. Znaniecki was Polish D. Polish girls were getting pregnant, which was less common back in
their home country E. Birthrate and immigration studies indicated that there should not be any Polish teenage
girls at that time
29. Park (1925) wrote: AOur great cities are full of junk, much of it _____. A. interesting B. in middle-class
neighborhoods C. created by capitalism D. left in the wake of migration from the city E. human
Lecture 3 B Anomie Theory
30. Durkheim believed that sometimes society fails to keep its members in check. Merton took Durkheim=s
belief one step further by saying that sometimes society forces us to deviance by A. making it easier to attain
material goods B. providing all citizens with realistic goals for success C. using the media to generate
expectations D. giving people dreams of success without the means E. providing credit to buy goods
31. How did Thomas Merton explain anomie? A. as normlessness resulting from social mobility B. as a
disjunction between goals and means C. as social disorganization resulting from increased migration D. as the
consequence of rapid industrialization E. as a moral failure of individuals in a complex society
32. According to Cloward and Ohlin, Merton=s anomie theory fails to take into consideration A. illegitimate
opportunity B. differential illegitimate opportunity C. equal legitimate opportunity D. equal illegitimate
opportunity E. A and D only
33. Durkheim=s theoretical argument about anomie in human societies begins with the assumption of A.
human selfishness B. lack of human self-control C. the adverse effect of crowds on human rationality D.
universal cultural values E. the inevitability of human progress
34. In his approach to anomie, Merton was most clearly determined to A. avoid economic determinism B.
avoid the concept of human choice C. feature cultural diversity D. show that society creates deviance E.
present America as the model society
Lecture 4 B Differential Association Theory
35. According to Donald R. Cressey in his work, AOther People=s Money: A Study in the Social Psychology
of Embezzlement@, a trust violator=s thought process included all of the following EXCEPT _____ A. the idea
that his/her problem was unshareable B. the idea that it would be difficult to get caught C. the idea that the
act itself was the result of a general irresponsibility for which he/she could not be completely responsible D.
the idea that the act was essentially non-criminal E. the perception of an opportunity
36. Daniel Glaser=s theory implies that people who pursue criminal behavior accept others who display
criminal behavior as role models. His theory is called ____ A. new differential association theory B.
criminal modeling theory C. criminal identification theory D. differential identification theory E. behavior
learning theory
37. According to Gresham Sykes and David Matza, the phrase which says Athe police get by with worse@,
would best describe the technique of neutralization known as _____ A. the denial of injury B. an appeal to
higher loyalties C. condemnation of the condemners D. the denial of responsibility E. the denial of the victim
38. In the 9 principles of their theory of crime, Sutherland and Cressey seem most clearly interested in
demonstrating that crime is A. normal B. biologically rooted C. psychologically abnormal D. a failure of
group norms E. sociologically explained
39. Which of the following would be the least apt example of Cressey=s Atrust violator.@ A. child abuser B.
bank embezzler C. inside trader (in stocks) D. organizational treasurer who is accused of using money for
personal convenience E. computer programmer who figures out how to skim a cent on every transaction into
a slush fund
40. Highly principled citizens who have avoided gambling all their lives may be willing to participate in a
lottery when they are led to believe that major beneficiaries are college students. This would most aptly
illustrate the technique of A. appeal to higher loyalties B. denying responsibility C. denying injury D.
denying victim E. condemning the condemners
Part 3: New Text (Thio) Items
Chapter 2 B Traditional Theories of Deviance
41. Joe is a sociologist who is undertaking a study of drug use. He is interested in how single-parent families
and poor neighborhoods lead to more problems of drug addiction. Joe is following a _____ theory of deviant
behavior. A. positivist B. constructionist C. scientific D. historical E. ritualistic (p. 17)
42. The essence of several types of strain theory is that the experience of A. personal, psychological strain
leads to deviant behavior B. socially induced strain forces people to commit deviant acts C. significant social
and political conflict leads to deviant acts D. cultural change leads to social strain and outbreaks of deviant
behavior E. all of the above are true (p. 17)
43. According to Albert Cohen, when lower-class boys experience status frustration they set up their own
competitive system in the form of A. After-school study groups B. Violent gangs C. Religious groups D.
Delinquent subcultures E. Boy=s clubs (p. 21)
44. Cloward and Ohlin used the concept of differential illegitimate opportunity to mean that some members of
the lower class have A. a greater chance to become middle-class through the use of illegitimate opportunities
B. virtually no chance to escape their class situation C. more opportunities to pursue legitimate opportunities
D. more positivist cultural values than others E. less opportunities to pursue illegitimate opportunities (p. 21)
45. Hank is a sociologist investigating the causes of crime. He is interested in how some areas of the city
have traditions of crime that persist over generations, and how individuals easily move into groups following
those traditions. What theory of deviance is guiding Hank=s research? A. labeling B. control C. differential
association D. social reality E. strain (p. 24)
46. Burgess and Akers find Sutherland=s differential association theory inadequate because it A. ignores the
individual=s decision-making ability B. is too ambiguous C. favors the wealthy D. does not specify what is
involved in the process of learning to become a criminal E. is not empirically testable (p. 25)
47. According to control theories of deviance, the central question is A. what causes white-collar crime B.
what causes conformity C. what causes deviance D. what causes criminality E. what is the definition of
deviance (p. 27)
48. The deterrence doctrine assumes that human beings, when anticipating deviant behavior, are A. basically
rational B. basically irrational C. not aware of the consequences D. mentally ill E. none of the above (p. 29)
49. Sociologists criticizing control theory point out that control can become a possible cause of deviance.
They therefore conclude that most versions of this theory are too A. underdeveloped B. difficult to
understand C. simplistic D. focused on society=s unattainable goals E. obscure (p. 31)
50. Merton=s ritualists and retreatists have one thing in common, which is the absence of high success goals in
their lives. A. true B. false (p. 19)
Chapter 3 B Modern Theories of Deviance
51. Which of the following statements reflects the symbolic interactionist=s view of human beings? A. humans
are simply a medium on which social forces operate in a neutral way B. humans face, deal with, and act
toward the objects they encounter C. human behavior is totally unpredictable D. human behavior largely
follows well-established patterns E. individuals have little awareness about what is going on around them (p.
52. According to Lemert, what is the first act in the sequence of interaction leading to secondary deviation?
A. primary deviation B. a deviant impulse C. tertiary deviation D. the confession of deviance E. being
apprehended after committing a crime (p. 37)
53. One reason why labeling theory has enjoyed tremendous popularity among sociologists is because this
theory A. supports many of the basic ideas of traditional theories of deviance B. firmly locates the role of the
powerful in creating deviant labels C. is easy for students to understand D. has considerable data to support
some of its basic ideas E. is isolated from all other sociological theories (p. 38)
54. What do phenomenologists mean by the deviant reality? A. the nature of deviant behavior as seen by
scientific sociologists B. the characteristics of deviance as shown by objectively acquired data C. the reality
of deviance as defined as such by the powerful D. the subjective meaning that deviants impute to their own
deviant experience E. the definition arrived upon by experts (p. 39)
55. At the heart of the conflict between phenomenologists and positivists is A. different philosophical views
of humanity B. different views on the punishment of deviants C. whether deviance is a primary or secondary
phenomenon D. whether sociology should even study immoral behavior like deviance E. different ideas about
right and wrong (p. 40)
56. Harold Garfinkel studied Agnus, who was a person seeking a sex change operation, and discovered that
she considered herself A. both a man and a woman at the same time B. a normal woman with a physical
defect (a penis) C. a sexual freak D. a normal man with several physical defects E. a dysfunctional man
57. The incompatible interests, needs, and desires of diverse groups of people in society can lead to A.
deviant behavior B. social conflict C. cultural conformity D. political anarchy E. social strain (p. 44)
58. Quinney and other conflict theorists see something terribly wrong with existing society, and have called
for A. a more extensive study of the sociology of deviance B. a revolution C. political action D. less deviant
behavior E. more police and stricter enforcement of the law (p. 47)
59. Which of the following are ways feminist theory shifts the focus of theories of deviance? A. a focus on
women as offenders and victims related to their subordinate roles B. a concentration on women as
economically more successful C. a focus on the greater deviance of men D. a recognition of a new and
growing goals-means gap E. renewed attention to the Equal Rights Amendment (p. 49)
60. Which of the following is NOT a statement about the nature of postmodernist theory? A. It is an attack on
modern science=s emphasis on a search for the objective truth B. It leads to the deconstructing of account to
reversal their contradictions and assumptions C. It studies Alinguistic domination@, among other topics D. It is
relatively disinterested in the most modern forms of deviant behavior E. All of the above are false (p. 51)
Part 4: New Lecture Items
Lecture 1: Functional theory
61. Erickson used the expression Aboundary maintaining@ to explain that communities (societies) attempt to A.
establish migration patterns B. socialize their members C. distinguish themselves in moral and normative
terms D. keep their communities ethnocentric E. resist their loss of autonomy
62. Durkheim believed (based on his work ASuicide@) that anomic suicide A. resulted when an individual
wanted to make a social statement through martyrdom B. was seen as a solution to his/her life failing to find
a basis for existence (meaning) C. helped the individual find a meaning beyond life D. was how individuals
were regulated (or not regulated) by society E. ceased to occur after the Industrial Revolution
63. A society without crime, according to Durkheim is A. impossible B. possible C. probable D. probably
preindustrial E. a society of saints
64. According to Kingsley Davis, in his work AThe Sociology of Prostitution@, the act of prostitution exists
because of all the following reasons EXCEPT A. it provides erotic release of a promiscuous, non-emotionally
complicating nature B. it provides a greater variety and less judgmental sexual services C. society is lenient
in its toleration of unrestricted indulgence in recreational sex D. society emphasizes the importance of the
traditional (monogamous adults) family E. c. and d. are both exceptions
65. Erickson believes that maintaining the collective identity of the group or society is A. a historical
occurrence, not seen today B. the primary function of deviance C. an ideological impossibility D. possible
only in the under developed countries E. a probability under a strong, totalitarian rule
Lecture 2: Social Disorganization theory
66. Farris and Dunham viewed the city in A. ideology and naturalization B. terms of mechanical solidarity C.
relation to the central role of religion and family D. a grid-path model E. concentric zones
67. Social Reconstruction is A. another name for anomie B. the same as social transition C. the replacement
of one set of institutions by another D. periodic reorganization E. a by-product of alienation
68. Cohen agreed with Merton=s assumption that lower-class people are more likely (than persons who are not
lower-class) to engage in deviant activities. A. true B. false
69. In their work AMental Disorders in Urban Areas@, Farris and Dunham found that the suburbs had the
highest rates of A. teenage pregnancies B. suicide C. homeless individuals D. per capita expenditures E.
after-school recreation programs
70. C. Wright Mills used the term Asocial pathologists@ to describe A. incarcerated criminals B. early Chicago
sociologists C. robber barons D. the Republican administration in power at that time E. medical doctors
Lecture 3 B Anomie Theory
71. In writing about anomie, Merton felt that A. society creates deviance B. human choice advanced deviance
C. economic determinism could counteract deviance D. the U.S. was the model society E. cultural diversity
would eventually eliminate anomie
72. Durkheim=s anomie theory begins with the assumption that A. humans are selfish B. humans lack selfcontrol C. human rationality diminishes in a riot situation D. universal cultural values prevailed E. human
progress will decrease with each century
73. Merton felt there could be several responses to anomie. For those choosing rebellion as a response, he
said that it (rebellion) begins first with the stage of A. ritualism B. conformity C. introspection D.
determinism E. retreatism
74. When Durkheim referred to anomie, he concentrated on the absence of social norms. To which social
norms was he referring? A. laws B. customs C. The Ten Commandments D. Those parental lessons that
many criminals did not learn E. a. and b.
75. In his work AIllegitimate Means, Anomie, and Deviant Behavior, Richard Cloward suggested
consolidating two approaches. They were A. Durkheim=s anomie, and Kobrin=s delinquency approach B.
Sutherland=s differential association, and Merton=s goals/means disjunction C. Cloward=s differential access,
and Merton=s disjunction of goals/means approach D. Durkheim=s anomie, and Sutherland=s differential
association E. Durkheim=s anomie, and Cloward=s differential access approach
Lecture 4 B Differential Association Theory
76. Glasser felt that Sutherland=s Differential Association theory was too ________, and proposed that a
process of identification with criminals also had to take place. A. restrictive B. mechanistic C. liberal D.
sociological E. compulsory
77. Glaser=s theory implies that people who engage in criminal behavior welcome others (as role models) who
display criminal behavior. Glaser=s theory is called A. behavior learning theory B. differential identification
theory C. criminal identification theory D. criminal modeling theory E. the new differential association
78. According to Cressey, Atrust violators@ use a certain method that is necessary and essential to their
criminal activities. This method is A. utilizing unusual job-related skills B. displaying unsocial pathology C.
a variety of Acon games@ D. rationalizations E. superior social skills
79. A developmental theory which emphasizes continued exposure to criminal associations over a period of
time, before the criminal behavior becomes permanent, was developed by A. Glaser B. Durkheim and
Merton C. Sutherland and Hirschi D. Merton E. Sutherland and Cressey
80. Sutherland=s theory of Differential Association explains criminality on a group level, but does not address
criminality as an individual phenomenon. A. true B. false