Memory – the persistence of learning over time http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVqRT_kCOLI&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PLF2 8222B6785920CF Of all our forms of memory, a few are exceptionally clear and vivid. We call these flashbulb memories. These tend to be memories of highly emotional events. Typically people remember exactly where they were when the event happened, what they were doing and the emotions they felt. Information Processing Model 1. encoding – getting information into brain 2. storage – retaining information 3. retrieval – get information back out Encoding Memory Automatic processing – unconscious processing of incidental information and well-learned information; Effortful processing – encoding that requires effort and conscious attention. For example, learning material for a class. Before you cram…. 1.Next-in-line effect – we are unlikely remember information presented just before we must perform; 2.Spacing effect – longer spaces between practice sessions leads to longer retention. Serial position effect – we are most likely to remember the beginning and end of items on a list. Encoding Self-reference effect – we are more likely to remember things that we feel relate to us. Mnemonic devices – memory techniques that make use of visual imagery or organizational information (Kooky Popeye Can Only Find Green Spinach) Chunking – organizing information into meaningful units. Grouping words or concepts into meaningful categories also helps with retention. This is why books are grouped into chapters with lots of intermediate headings and sections. Storage Occurs at three levels: sensory, short term, long term 1. Sensory memory – extremely short-term memory of the information taken in by our senses. It last for few seconds, but includes a great deal of the information entering our senses. Iconic memory – sensory memory of a visual image; lasts a few 10ths of a second Echoic memory – sensory memory of auditory stimuli; lasts 3-4 seconds. It’s why you can answer were you listening? 2. Short-term memory – (working memory) memory that lasts only as long as we rehearse it. Senso ry Short Term Long Term The Magic Number 7 (Miller) Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM Long-term memory – information that is processed and stored so that it can be retrieved much later http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dJpwcyYTUk Capacity of long term memory: thought to be limitless Memory is stored in synapses; Memories stored long-term are not disrupted by electrical shock or a period of being unconscious. Shortterm memories are. Short term stress (that causes release of hormones like adrenaline) increase retention. This is possible explanation for flashbulb memories (clear memory of emotionally significant events) Prolonged stress (that causes the release of hormones like cortisol) can corrode neural connections and even destroy the hippocampus Consolidation – process by which working memory gets put into long term Hippocampus is the temporary processing center for storing explicit memories; once formed, the memories are stored in the frontal and temporal lobes of the cortex Retrieval http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AbASOcqc1Ss Recognition (MC) vs. Recall (SA) Once we’ve learned something and forgotten it, it takes less time to relearn it. Recognition is easier than recall because it provides retrieval cues or hints that help us remember where the information is stored in our memory. Priming – the activation of particular associations in our memory; is often unconscious. For example, we may suddenly remember something that we thought we had forgotten when we smell or taste something associated with the memory. In this case, the smell is priming our memory Associative network: memories linked together through experience Spreading activation model: representations of concepts and their characteristics are activated (ie: canary and bird) Closeness of association affects retrieval time – distant associations take longer Schema: cognitive framework for organizing associated concepts Context effects – we are more likely to remember something if we learn it in the same context. For example, you will likely do better on a psychology test if you take it in this room. State-dependent memory – we are more likely to remember something if we are in the same psychological state (happy, sad, etc) that we were in when we learned it. Memories are mood-congruent Good mood = positive memories Bad mood = negative memories Downward spiral of depression Forgetting – Forgetting is an important adaptation. If we couldn’t forget most of the information that enters our senses, we would be distracted most of the time. Why do we forget? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw 1. Encoding Failure – information never enters longterm memory; usually because we didn’t make an effort to pay attention and rehearse the information 2. Storage Decay – memories that are not used and rehearsed are forgotten (do you remember freshman biology?) (Ebbinghaus curve) 3. Retrieval Failure – inability to “locate” memories; tip of the tongue phenomenon; commonly associated with memory loss in old age. Interference – learning that interferes with retrieving other information Proactive interference (forward acting interference) the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. Retroactive interference (backward-acting interference) the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. Positive Transfer: Mastery of one task aids learning or performing another. Ex? Negative Transfer: Mastery of one task conflicts with learning or performing another. Ex? Seven Sins: As you know, not all the information you learn will stick in your brain. According to Daniel Schacter, this is the result of one of the “seven sins of memory:” Transience Absent-mindedness Blocking Misattribution Suggestibility Bias Expectancy Bias: A memory tendency to distort recalled events to fit one’s expectations. Self-consistency Bias: A commonly held idea that we are more consistent in our attitudes and beliefs, over time, than we actually are. Persistence Motivated Forgetting (repression) – it has been suggested that people repress memories that are painful or that conflict with their self-image. For example, if I view myself as a kind and caring person, I may forget about the cruel things I did to my sister as a child. Memory Construction – Do we create false memories? Misinformation Effect – If we are primed with misleading information, we are likely to incorporate it into our memory; As we retell stories, we will fill make guesses about memory gaps. These guesses then become part of our memory. Korsakoff’s syndrome: Brain disorder from prolonged loss of vitamin thiamine as in diet of chronic alcoholics – Extreme degree of memory loss – Often engage in confabulation – cannot remember ending to a statement so make it up; an exaggerated version of normal reconstruction distortion Source Amnesia – Attributing an event to the wrong source. This could be attributing an imagined event to real life or attributing a story read in a book to your own childhood. How can we tell if memories are true or false? The hippocampus is equally active when a person recounts true and false memories. However, other areas (such as association areas) are only active when a person recounts a true memory. http://www.ted.com/talks/taryn_simon_photographs_secr et_sites.html Eye Witness Accounts Self-assurance and confidence are NOT good indicators of how likely one’s memories are to be true. Hypnotically refreshed memories are susceptible to the misinformation effect (from leading questions) and are not more likely to be true than other memories. Eyewitness testimony is most likely to be accurate if a neutral person who asks non-leading questions performs the interview. Names: Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin George Sperling George Miller Fergus Crick and Robert Lockhart Karl Lashley H.M. Daniel Schacter Hermann Ebbinghaus Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer What are the differences between implicit and explicit memories? Roger is at a wedding reception where he has been introduced to over 50 guests whom he has never met. He can remember only a handful of names. Describe the role that sensory storage, short-term memory, and long-term memory play for Roger in this situation.