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Transcript
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY: Body Systems
Digestive, Circulatory & Immune, Respiratory, Excretory (Urinary),
Muscular & Skeletal, Nervous & Endocrine
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 6 Basic Nutrients
--- Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals & H2O
Energy Content of Food
 Energy comes from the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates,
fats & proteins  This energy is released by cell ______________
 ***Fats contain _____________ as many calories as carbs. or protein
Digestion & Absorption
 _______________ = process by which food molecules are broken down
 These molecules enter cells through cell membranes  ______________
a) _______________ digestion – pieces of food are cut, crushed, or broken
into smaller particles so _____ is increased
b) _______________ digestion – carried out by ***______________***
(that act on the surface of food particles)
Mouth  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small Intestine 
Large Intestine  Rectum  Anus
MOUTH & PHARYNX (= back of throat)
 Mouth – mechanical & chemical digestion
--- ___________ secreted by salivary glands
 ______________ – prevents food from entering
the trachea (air passage)
ESOPHAGUS
 Waves of muscular contraction & relaxation = ________________
(pushes food along toward stomach)
STOMACH
 Thick-walled _____________ sac
 Mechanical digestion of food occurs by contractions of stomach wall
 ***Chemical digestion of ____________ begins here
 ___________ – when mucus layer is damaged, gastric juices eat away at
cells & painful ulcers can form… Relation to _____________???
SMALL INTESTINE
 3 parts (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
 ***Most ________________ digestion takes place here***
 ***Site of ________________***
a) CHEMICAL DIGESTION
 Pancreas – secretes MANY _____________ into small intestine
 Liver – secretes ___________ (stored in ______ bladder)
--- Bile emulsifies fats (= breaks up fats/oils to increase ____)
 Intestinal juice – contains enzymes that COMPLETE the digestion
of carbohydrates, fats & proteins amino acids


simple sugars fatty acids (& glycerol)
b) ABSORPTION  Nutrients diffuse through
_______________ cells and enter either capillaries
OR ____________
 To increase absorption, the small intestine:
--- Is very LONG (6.5 meters) & has many FOLDS
--- Is covered with millions of finger-like projections
called __________
LARGE INTESTINE
 ***NO ______________ occurs here***
 Undigested & unabsorbed materials come here
 ________________ – can become infected  Appendicitis
 ________________ of water (3/4 reabsorbed) & minerals
--- Diarrhea vs. Constipation
 ________________ of undigested & indigestible material  Cellulose,
bacteria, bile, mucus, etc...  Becomes _________ (stool)  Stored in
____________  Released/eliminated through __________
 Absorption of _____________ (K, B) produced by _____________
CIRCULATORY & IMMUNE SYSTEMS
 Transport = process by which substances move ________ or
________ of cells, are distributed ______________ cells OR are
circulated between parts of a multicellular organism
 Humans have a single heart & a network of blood vessels  The heart
pumps blood & the vessels carry it TO & FROM all ______ of the body
BLOOD VESSELS
a) Arteries = thick, muscular, elastic blood vessels
that carry blood ___________ from the heart
b) Veins = thin-walled blood vessels that ___________ blood to heart
 Most have _____________ that prevent the backflow of blood
c) Capillaries = connect arterioles TO venules
 Very narrow blood vessels with walls only _______ cell thick
 ***Sites of _______________ between body cells & blood
Arteries  aterioles  capillaries (sites of exchange)  venules  Veins
THE HEART




___-chambered muscular organ
The 2 upper chambers are called ____________
The 2 lower chambers are called ____________
The atria _____________ blood & the ventricles
___________ it out
 Made up of ______________ muscle
***CIRCULATION through the HEART***
 Oxygen-poor blood (deoxygenated blood) returning from the body enters
the _____  Passes through a valve & enters the _____  Pumps it
through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs (exchange occurs) 
Pulmonary veins return the oxygenated blood to the _____  Passes
through a valve & enters the _____  Pumps blood out (through the
large ___________) to the rest of the body
CONTROL of HEARTBEAT
 ____________ = pacemaker = specialized muscle cells in the walls of
the _____ that send electrical impulses to the heart, causing the atria
to contract  ____________ triggers an impulse almost immediately
after causing the ____________ to contract
BLOOD PRESSURE = pressure the blood exerts on _____________ walls
 BP ____ to a maximum during ______________ (systolic pressure)
 BP ____ to a minimum during ______________ (diastolic pressure)
 Average BP is ____ / ____ (systolic pressure / diastolic pressure)
 ____________ can be felt when the ____ contracts & then relaxes
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
 __________________ (high BP) – caused by stress, sodium (Na),
smoking, aging, obesity, lack of exercise, etc…
 __________________ – narrowing of arteries due to deposits of
__________________ & other fatty material
 Heart disease – narrowing OR blockage of ____________ arteries
(which supply heart muscle with ____________ & _____)
Ex.
Heart Attack (complete blockage)
BLOOD COMPONENTS
 Plasma
 Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
 White Blood Cells (WBCs)
 Platelets
1) Plasma = ____________ portion
 55% of blood (90% of which is ____________)
RBCs, WBCs & platelets make up 45% of blood (____________ portion)
2) Red Blood Cells – have NO ___________ when mature
 Contain ***_____*** (a RED, IRON containing pigment/protein
that helps transports _____ & CO2)
 Made by the __________ ____________
 Shape = biconcave disc
 About 30 trillion RBCs in avg. adult
3) White Blood Cells
a) _______________ = defend against infection by
surrounding, engulfing & destroying bacteria by
phagocytosis
b) _______________ = produce ***______________***
which attack ***_____________*** (= foreign substances)
--- Involved in the ____________ response
 There are actually 5 types of WBCs…
 Produced by bone marrow & ___________ tissue
(lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus gland, spleen)
 ______________ = a disease of the bone marrow in which there is
an ________________ production of non-functional WBCs
--- A form of ____________
4) Platelets = cell fragments involved in
***_________ ___________***
 Produced by the cytoplasm of bone marrow
 _______________ = a hereditary disease in
which one or more of the clotting factors are
_____________ in the blood
IMMUNE SYSTEM
 _______________ = viruses, bacteria, fungi & other microorganisms
that can cause DISEASE = a failure of ______________
--- The human body has a 3-Line Defense against infection:
 1st Line Defense – physical & chemical barriers
Ex. ____________ (Most pathogens cannot get by unbroken skin),
sweat, tears, saliva, _____________ (traps pathogens), stomach acid
 2nd Line Defense – the start of an infection triggers an
______________________ response  Causes swelling, redness,
warmth & pain in infected area
--- The inflammation ATTRACTS _________________ which
ingest the pathogens & the inflammation eventually dies down
 3rd Line Defense – involves the IMMUNE SYSTEM
--- Lymphocytes produce ________________
that attack pathogens OR "mark" them for killing
 Antibodies are ______________ for certain pathogens
 If an antigen enters the body a 2nd time, ______________ are
produced MORE QUICKLY because of memory WBCs
---This is why we usually do not get chicken pox twice,
the same cold twice, etc…
TYPES of IMMUNITY
a) ______________ = when the body produces its own ______________
to attack an antigen
1. Actually having the disease
2. ______________ (dead or weakened bacteria/virus is injected to
trigger an antibody response)
b) ______________ = antibodies from an "outside" source are
introduced into an individual’s blood
 Only ____________ since body gradually destroys the antibodies
 ____________ immunity – protects infant for 1st few months of life
BLOOD TYPES
 A, B, AB & O
 There are ______________ present on the surface of RBCs
--- Ex. Type A blood will have antigen ____ on its RBC surfaces
 The plasma contains _______________ for the antigens NOT present
on the RBC surface
--- Ex. Type A blood will have ___________ antibodies in its plasma
ALLERGIES
 An __________________ to an antigen that is NOT normally harmful
 Ex. Pollen, dust mites, peanuts, animal hair
 ________________ gets released & induces an
____________________ response  Runny nose, swollen eyes,
sneezing, coughing, rash, redness, pain
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
 _______________ surface = the surface through which
gas exchange takes place
The respiratory surface MUST BE:
 ____________ (so ______________ can occur rapidly)
 ____________ (because O2 & CO2 must be in solution)
 In _____________ with an O2 source
***Gas exchange takes place by ______________ (FROM an area of
_____________ concentration TO an area of __________ concentration)***
***The greater the _____, the MORE exchange that can take place***
 O2 is taken in, transferred to the __________, then carried to the various
cells/tissues of the body
 CO2 (waste product from cell ____________) is removed from the blood
& transferred to the external environment
 ***_____________*** = principal respiratory organs of the human body
Nose  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchi  Bronchial tubes 
Bronchioles  Alveoli (air sacs)
NOSE
 Air enters through the ____________ (which have hairs that
___________ foreign particles)
 Nasal passages are lined with _____________ membranes that have
_________ and secrete _____________ (moistens the air)  Help trap
bacteria, dust, pollen, etc…
 Air is _____________ by capillaries
 Therefore, air that enters the body via the nose gets
***filtered, moistened & warmed***
PHARYNX – passageway for air as it passes to the trachea
LARYNX (Voice Box) – contains the ___________ ___________
TRACHEA (“________________”) – connects pharynx to bronchi
 Surrounded by ______________ rings that help keep it open
 Lined with _____________ _____________ membranes
 Cilia sweep inhaled foreign substances back up into the pharynx
where they are usually swallowed
BRONCHI – connect trachea with ______________ tubes (= tree-like
branches of the bronchi)
BRONCHIOLES – connect bronchial tubes with _____________
 Walls are very ___________
ALVEOLI (_______ _________) = the fundamental units of gas exchange
 ***The _________ (only ______ cell thick) are the respiratory surface
 ***Surrounded by many ________________
 ____ diffuses from alveoli into surrounding capillaries while ______
(and some _______) diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli
HEMOGLOBIN (Hb)
 Most O2 is carried from the lungs to body cells/tissues by ____
 LUNGS: Hb combines with O2 to form ____________________,
which is ___________ RED
 TISSUES: Hb drops off O2  Blood turns ___________ RED
(purple) since Hb now contains NO oxygen
DISEASES of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
 Bronchitis = _________________ of the linings of the bronchial tubes,
which become irritated, swollen & get clogged with __________
 Asthma = severe ___________ reaction which constricts the bronchioles
 Emphysema = lung disorder in which the walls of the _____________
break down, making the respiratory surface ____________
--- Leads to shortness of breath & difficulty breathing
 Pneumonia = alveoli become filled with ___________
--- Prevents the exchange of ________
SMOKING
 Linked to COPD & lung ___________
 Smoke contains carbon ______________ (CO) which has a greater
attraction for _____ than O2  So _________ oxygen is in the blood
 ____ the amount of ___________ in air passages
--- Constant coughing (smoker’s cough)
 Particles from smoke damage walls of alveoli  ________________