Vocabulary: Compound Words Learning Object (LO) 2 Pau Fontanos Frame Number Content Multimedia 1 When two become one: Recognizing compound words This is the title of the LO. Animate as you please. 2 OBJECTIVES Show each line one after the other. At the end of this lesson you should be able to: 1. identify the different types of compound words 2. form compound words and infer their meaning 3 REVIEW In the story “The Happiest Boy in the World” we encountered two compound words: landlord and homestead. Do you remember what these two words mean? Please animate the two words showing them separately first then coming together. Please provide the necessary graphic. In the story, Ka Ponso is a landlord. What do you think is a landlord? The story also mentions that Julio filled out a homestead application. What do you think is a homestead? As you can see, landlord is made up of two words: land and lord. Literally, this word means lord of the land and therefore may refer to the one who owns it. So what is the meaning of landlord? That’s right! A landlord is someone who owns land. Homestead is also made up of two words: home and stead. Home is where a person lives. Stead can mean a farmhouse or a place in general. So what is the meaning of homestead? Correct! A homestead is a dwelling that is usually a farmhouse and its adjoining land. Also, a homestead can be called a home place. Governments have homestead laws whereby persons can secure public lands by filling out an application and promising to cultivate the land in return. 4 INFORMATION AND EXAMPLE Landlord and homestead are what you call compound Please animate each word. words. A compound word is a combination of two words that can each stand alone. A compound word is formed by putting two words together to form a new word or phrase with a different meaning. Compound words can be classified into four: 5 6 7 1. solid compounds (closed form)—compound words not joined by a hyphen or not separated by a space. (e.g., paperclip, airplane, postman, newspaper, etc.) 2. hyphenated compounds (hyphenated form)— compound words joined by a hyphen (e.g., year-end, high-tech, life-size, know-how, etc.) 3. spaced compounds (open form)—compound words separated by a space (e.g., grass roots, health care, work sheet, time frame) 4. compounds that change spelling depending on use (variant form)—compound words that are spelled differently with different usage -do- Please animate each word, provide necessary graphic and create indicated pop-ups. a) solid compounds that function as a noun (Pop-up: A noun is a word that names a person, animal, place, thing or abstract idea. Examples: sister, horse, city, freedom, etc.) but become an adjective (Pop-up: An adjective is a word that describes, identifies, and quantifies a noun or pronoun. Examples: bare apartment, yellow book, three bags, round-shaped object, etc.) when hyphenated 8 grownup/grown-up A grownup (Pop-up: In this sentence, grownup means an adult person. It is a noun, introduced by the article/determiner “a” and functions as the subject of the sentence.) told me this when I was young. A grown-up (Pop-up: This time appearing with a hyphen, grown-up here means like an adult. It functions as an adjective and comes before the noun that it describes.) boy thinks more maturely. b) solid compounds that function as an indefinite pronoun (Pop up: An indefinite pronoun refers to a being, object or place that is not specific or exact. It refers to something that is not definite. Examples: all, each, everyone, anybody, etc.) and Please animate each word, provide necessary graphic and create indicated pop-ups. become separate words to single out a member of a group 9 10 anyone/any one Anyone (Pop-up: The indefinite pronoun anyone which refers to an unspecified person here functions as a noun and acts as the subject of the sentence) can do that. Any one (Pop-up: Here, any acts as an adjective and describes the subject one. It means “in does not matter who”.) of you is a suspect. c) spaced compounds that function as noun phrases (Pop up: A noun phrase is a word which can be a noun or a pronoun or a group or words connected to a main noun. Examples: illness, an illness, a woman, an old rather thin woman, etc.) or adverbial phrases (Pop up: An adverbial phrase is a word or group of words that can modify a an adjective, verb or an entire clause. Examples: very nice, walk slowly, He made all the cakes in the kitchen, etc.) that become hyphenated when used as adjectives(Pop up: An adjective is a word that describes, identifies, and quantifies a noun or pronoun. Examples: bare apartment, yellow book, three bags, round-shaped object, etc.) long run/long-run Hard-working people succeed in the long run (Pop up: Long run here means a long period of time and the expression “in the long run” means after a long period of time.). The famous actress starred in a long-run (Pop up: In this sentence, long-run means happening over a long period of time or having a long course of performances.) hit play. d) spaced compounds that function as verbs (Pop up: A verb is a word or part of speech that expresses an action [Examples: read, carry], occurrence [Examples: explode, sparkle] and state of being [Examples: taste, sound]) with preposition (Pop up: A preposition is a part of speech that shows the relationship of one word to the other words in the sentence. Examples: to, by, up, out, etc. A verb with a preposition is called a multiword verb. A multiword verb is made up of a verb and another word like an adverb or preposition. Examples: -do- -do- come to, drop by, look up, hand out, etc.) that become solid when used as nouns (Pop up: meaning and examples) or adjectives(Pop up: meaning and examples) 11 back up/backup You have to back up your files just in case. (Back up here is a verb with a preposition and forms a single unit of meaning. Back up means to make a copy just in case there is a problem with the original. You cannot say back your files. It is always back up your files/back your files up.) My backup files got destroyed by a virus. (Backup here functions as a description of the word files and mean copy. As an adjective, the compound word becomes solid.) These files are my backup. (In this sentence, backup acts as a noun and means the files themselves. The compound word is solid.) e) spaced compounds that function as noun (Pop-up: A noun is a word that names a person, animal, place, thing or abstract idea. Examples: sister, horse, city, freedom, etc.)Pop up: meaning and examples) but become hyphenated as a verb((Pop up: A verb is a word or part of speech that expresses an action [Examples: read, carry], occurrence [Examples: explode, sparkle] and state of being [Examples: taste, sound]). spot check/spot-check We were all surprised by the spot check. (Spot check is an inspection that is carried out with no initial warning. Here the compound word functions as a noun and is spaced.) Is the police spot-checking every car? (Spotcheck here means to carry out an inspection at random. As a verb in this sentence, it is hyphenated compound.) The best way to deal with compound words and how they are spelled is to consult a dictionary. Make sure to get a new dictionary every five years or so to keep abreast Might be unfamiliar with evolving Might be unfamiliar words. It is predicted that the following compounds, for example, will lose their hyphens soon if not already: e-mail, log-in, and on-line. -do- 12 Self-test I Match two words correctly to make a new word. air back bull cut free grape vine pen 13 field way -doKindly pattern this activity after the one found here http://www.oswego.org/ocsdweb/match/dragflip.asp?filenam e=kderittecompound] drop throat II Mon works in the city fire station where he is very well-liked. According to his co-workers he is easy to get along with because he’s very laid back. Overall, they think Mon is a nice guy. Every one who knows Mon knows that he’s willing to risk both life and limb to help his community. Every time there’s a fire he’s always there to serve and protect those in need. Mon really does have a heart of gold. He also loves to laugh. He’s always ready to crack a joke or two. It is very surprising to know that Mon is shy around the ladies. With girls, he can be very bashful. Click “yes” if the compound words describe Mon and “no” if they don’t. Compound words easygoing big-hearted firefighter dull-witted straight-laced No Yes [Technical note: Kindly pattern this section after the activity that can be found here http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cf m/vocabulary.cfm?str=vocabular y&num=8&act=1. For every answer, the following annotations appear: 1. easygoing—No: But Mon is very well-liked, laid back and easy to work with! Yes: Right. Mon is laid back, well-liked, and easy to work with so he is easygoing. 2. big-hearted—No: The passage says he has a heart of gold and is always there to serve and protect. Try again. Yes: Indeed. He has a heart of gold and is willing to risk his life and limb help others. He is big-hearted. 3. firefighter—No: He works at the fire station. Try again. Yes: Right. Mon works at the fire station as a firefighter. 4. dull-witted—No: Right. He’s always ready to crack a joke or two. He’s not dull-witted. Yes: How about his always being ready to crack a joke or two? Try again. 5. straight-laced—No: Mon is shy around ladies. Think again. Yes: Very good. Mon is bashful when women are around. That means he’s straight-laced. 14 Summary This learning object shows you that compound words are single words that are made up from two words. The meaning of a compound word is different from the meaning of the two combining words when separated. There are four types of compound words: closed (no hyphen, no space), hyphenated (with a hyphen), open (no hyphen, with space) and variant (with changeable spelling). The best way to know how a compound word is spelled is to look in the dictionary.