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Glossary of Key Terms for Chapter Four
acid-base reaction (4.3) reactions that involve the transfer of a hydrogen ion (H +) from one reactant to
another.
atomic mass unit (4.1) the unit of measure of atomic mass, one-twelfth of the mass of the 12C atom,
equivalent to 1.6606 x 10–24 gram.
Avogadro's number (4.1) 6.022 x 1023 particles of matter contained in one mole substance.
chemical equation (4.3) a record of chemical change, showing the conversion of reactants to products.
chemical formula (4.2) the representation of a compound or ion in which elemental symbols represent
types of atoms and subscripts show the relative numbers of atoms.
combination reaction (4.3) a reaction in which two substances join to form another substance.
decomposition reaction (4.3) the breakdown of a substance into two or more substances.
double-replacement reaction (4.3) a chemical change in which cations and anions “exchange partners.”
formula unit (4.2) the smallest collection of atoms from which the formula of a compound can be
established.
formula weight (4.2) the mass of a formula unit of a compound relative to a standard (carbon-12).
hydrate (4.2) any substance that has water molecules incorporated in its structure.
law of conservation of mass (4.3) a law stating that, in chemical change, matter cannot be created or
destroyed.
molar mass (4.1) the mass in grams of one mole of a substance.
mole (4.1) the amount of substance containing Avogadro's number of particles.
oxidation-reduction reaction (4.3) also called redox reaction, a reaction involving the transfer of one or
more electrons from one reactant to another.
percent yield (4.5) the ratio of the actual and theoretical yields of a chemical reaction multiplied by 100%.
product (4.3) the chemical species that results from a chemical reaction and that appears on the right side
of the chemical equation.
reactant (4.3) starting material for a chemical reaction that appears on the left side of the chemical
equation.
single-replacement reaction (4.3) also called substitution reaction, one in which one atom in a molecule is
displaced by another.
theoretical yield (4.5) the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of
reactant.