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Glossary of Key Terms for Chapter Four acid-base reaction (4.3) reactions that involve the transfer of a hydrogen ion (H +) from one reactant to another. atomic mass unit (4.1) the unit of measure of atomic mass, one-twelfth of the mass of the 12C atom, equivalent to 1.6606 x 10–24 gram. Avogadro's number (4.1) 6.022 x 1023 particles of matter contained in one mole substance. chemical equation (4.3) a record of chemical change, showing the conversion of reactants to products. chemical formula (4.2) the representation of a compound or ion in which elemental symbols represent types of atoms and subscripts show the relative numbers of atoms. combination reaction (4.3) a reaction in which two substances join to form another substance. decomposition reaction (4.3) the breakdown of a substance into two or more substances. double-replacement reaction (4.3) a chemical change in which cations and anions “exchange partners.” formula unit (4.2) the smallest collection of atoms from which the formula of a compound can be established. formula weight (4.2) the mass of a formula unit of a compound relative to a standard (carbon-12). hydrate (4.2) any substance that has water molecules incorporated in its structure. law of conservation of mass (4.3) a law stating that, in chemical change, matter cannot be created or destroyed. molar mass (4.1) the mass in grams of one mole of a substance. mole (4.1) the amount of substance containing Avogadro's number of particles. oxidation-reduction reaction (4.3) also called redox reaction, a reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another. percent yield (4.5) the ratio of the actual and theoretical yields of a chemical reaction multiplied by 100%. product (4.3) the chemical species that results from a chemical reaction and that appears on the right side of the chemical equation. reactant (4.3) starting material for a chemical reaction that appears on the left side of the chemical equation. single-replacement reaction (4.3) also called substitution reaction, one in which one atom in a molecule is displaced by another. theoretical yield (4.5) the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant.